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Chemical Compound Review

Platelet activating factor     2-[[(2R)-2-acetyloxy-3- hexadecoxy-propoxy]...

Synonyms: AcGEPC, HAGPC, APRL, HD-PAF, Hag-PC, ...
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Disease relevance of PAF acether


Psychiatry related information on PAF acether


High impact information on PAF acether


Chemical compound and disease context of PAF acether

  • Agents that interfere with PAF-induced ceramide synthesis, such as steroids or the xanthogenate D609, attenuate pulmonary edema formation induced by PAF, endotoxin or acid instillation [2].
  • When challenged by external stimuli including cytokines and hypoxia, CEC have been shown to release/express various products of arachidonic acid cascade with both vasoactive and pro-inflammatory properties, including prostaglandins, leukotrienes, and platelet-activating factor (PAF) [14].
  • The platelet activating factor (PAF) antagonist, WEB2086, and a tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha-specific antibody were also effective in attenuating the gut I/R-induced leukostasis and NAD(P)H autofluorescence [15].
  • Phenidone (10 mg/kg), a dual cyclooxygenase/5-lipoxygenase inhibitor, affected neither the neutropenia nor the neutrophilia induced by C5a, f-MLF, or PAF [16].
  • Although unable to inhibit cAMP formation in intact platelets, both PAF and vasopressin caused pertussis toxin-sensitive inhibition of adenylyl cyclase in isolated membranes [17].

Biological context of PAF acether


Anatomical context of PAF acether


Associations of PAF acether with other chemical compounds

  • Activation of platelets by platelet-activating factor (PAF) derived from IgE-sensitized basophils. II. The role of serine proteases, cyclic nucleotides, and contractile elements in PAF-induced secretion [27].
  • For maximum nonadherence, the optimum concentration was about 2 X 10(-11) M LTB4, 10(-9) M C5a des arg, 2 X 10(-8) M FMLP, 2 X 10(-9) M PAF, and 2 X 10(-8) M PMA [28].
  • Macrophages that have ingested apoptotic cells in vitro inhibit proinflammatory cytokine production through autocrine/paracrine mechanisms involving TGF-beta, PGE2, and PAF [29].
  • In addition, we studied the effect of dexamethasone on a nonpeptide inflammatory mediator, platelet-activating factor (PAF), which is not degraded by NEP or ACE [30].
  • The magnitude of plasma extravasation produced by an intravenous injection of substance P (5 micrograms/kg) or PAF (10 micrograms/kg) was then assessed by using Monastral blue pigment as an intravascular tracer [30].

Gene context of PAF acether

  • Surprisingly, analysis of the activation of the mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases p44(ERK1) and p42(ERK2), showed that ERK2, but not ERK1, was transiently activated in human eosinophils after stimulation with IL-5 or PAF [31].
  • PAF synthesis was stimulated by murine and human recombinant IL 1 alpha but not by human recombinant IL 1 beta and 22K factor [32].
  • Furthermore, the chemoattractants platelet-activating factor (PAF), RANTES, and C5a were also able to induce phosphotyrosine-associated PI3K activity [31].
  • Together, these data show that maximal P-selectin translocation and subsequent neutrophil adhesion was mediated by VEGF-A(165) on the activation of VEGFR-2/NRP-1 complex and required PAF synthesis [33].
  • Elevated numbers of adherent and emigrated leukocytes were observed in venules of LDLr-/- (compared with wild-type) mice on HCD, both under baseline conditions and after exposure to either LTB4, PAF, or TNF-alpha [34].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of PAF acether


  1. Cloning by functional expression of platelet-activating factor receptor from guinea-pig lung. Honda, Z., Nakamura, M., Miki, I., Minami, M., Watanabe, T., Seyama, Y., Okado, H., Toh, H., Ito, K., Miyamoto, T. Nature (1991) [Pubmed]
  2. PAF-mediated pulmonary edema: a new role for acid sphingomyelinase and ceramide. Göggel, R., Winoto-Morbach, S., Vielhaber, G., Imai, Y., Lindner, K., Brade, L., Brade, H., Ehlers, S., Slutsky, A.S., Schütze, S., Gulbins, E., Uhlig, S. Nat. Med. (2004) [Pubmed]
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  4. Nonimmunological production of leukotrienes induced by platelet-activating factor. Voelkel, N.F., Worthen, S., Reeves, J.T., Henson, P.M., Murphy, R.C. Science (1982) [Pubmed]
  5. Platelet-activating factor antagonist BN52021 decreases accumulation of free polyunsaturated fatty acid in mouse brain during ischemia and electroconvulsive shock. Birkle, D.L., Kurian, P., Braquet, P., Bazan, N.G. J. Neurochem. (1988) [Pubmed]
  6. Radiation-induced increased platelet-activating factor activity in mixed saliva. McManus, L.M., Ostrom, K.K., Lear, C., Luce, E.B., Gander, D.L., Pinckard, R.N., Redding, S.W. Lab. Invest. (1993) [Pubmed]
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  9. Effect of bacosides, alcoholic extract of Bacopa monniera Linn. (brahmi), on experimental amnesia in mice. Kishore, K., Singh, M. Indian J. Exp. Biol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  10. Crystal structure of human cytosolic phospholipase A2 reveals a novel topology and catalytic mechanism. Dessen, A., Tang, J., Schmidt, H., Stahl, M., Clark, J.D., Seehra, J., Somers, W.S. Cell (1999) [Pubmed]
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  12. Platelet-activating factor-induced aggregation of human platelets specifically inhibited by triazolobenzodiazepines. Kornecki, E., Ehrlich, Y.H., Lenox, R.H. Science (1984) [Pubmed]
  13. Blockade of eosinophil migration and airway hyperresponsiveness by cPLA2-inhibition. Myou, S., Sano, H., Fujimura, M., Zhu, X., Kurashima, K., Kita, T., Nakao, S., Nonomura, A., Shioya, T., Kim, K.P., Munoz, N.M., Cho, W., Leff, A.R. Nat. Immunol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  14. Inflammatory mediators of cerebral endothelium: a role in ischemic brain inflammation. Stanimirovic, D., Satoh, K. Brain Pathol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  15. Role of Kupffer cells in gut ischemia/reperfusion-induced hepatic microvascular dysfunction in mice. Horie, Y., Wolf, R., Russell, J., Shanley, T.P., Granger, D.N. Hepatology (1997) [Pubmed]
  16. Neutrophil chemotactic factors promote leukocytosis. A common mechanism for cellular recruitment from bone marrow. Jagels, M.A., Hugli, T.E. J. Immunol. (1992) [Pubmed]
  17. Interactions in platelets between G proteins and the agonists that stimulate phospholipase C and inhibit adenylyl cyclase. Brass, L.F., Woolkalis, M.J., Manning, D.R. J. Biol. Chem. (1988) [Pubmed]
  18. Platelet-activating factor. A potent chemotactic and chemokinetic factor for human eosinophils. Wardlaw, A.J., Moqbel, R., Cromwell, O., Kay, A.B. J. Clin. Invest. (1986) [Pubmed]
  19. Interaction of Ca2+ and protein phosphorylation in the rabbit platelet release reaction. Lyons, R.M., Shaw, J.O. J. Clin. Invest. (1980) [Pubmed]
  20. Platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase deficiency. A missense mutation near the active site of an anti-inflammatory phospholipase. Stafforini, D.M., Satoh, K., Atkinson, D.L., Tjoelker, L.W., Eberhardt, C., Yoshida, H., Imaizumi, T., Takamatsu, S., Zimmerman, G.A., McIntyre, T.M., Gray, P.W., Prescott, S.M. J. Clin. Invest. (1996) [Pubmed]
  21. Enhanced G protein activation in immortalized lymphoblasts from patients with essential hypertension. Siffert, W., Rosskopf, D., Moritz, A., Wieland, T., Kaldenberg-Stasch, S., Kettler, N., Hartung, K., Beckmann, S., Jakobs, K.H. J. Clin. Invest. (1995) [Pubmed]
  22. Biosynthesis of platelet-activating factor and its 1O-acyl analogue by liver fat-storing cells. Pinzani, M., Carloni, V., Marra, F., Riccardi, D., Laffi, G., Gentilini, P. Gastroenterology (1994) [Pubmed]
  23. Immunoglobulin E-dependent active fatal anaphylaxis in mast cell-deficient mice. Choi, I.H., Shin, Y.M., Park, J.S., Lee, M.S., Han, E.H., Chai, O.H., Im, S.Y., Ha, T.Y., Lee, H.K. J. Exp. Med. (1998) [Pubmed]
  24. Activation and desensitization of platelets by platelet-activating factor (PAF) derived from IgE-sensitized basophils. I. Characteristics of the secretory response. Henson, P.M. J. Exp. Med. (1976) [Pubmed]
  25. Platelet-activating factor exerts mitogenic activity and stimulates expression of interleukin 6 and interleukin 8 in human lung fibroblasts via binding to its functional receptor. Roth, M., Nauck, M., Yousefi, S., Tamm, M., Blaser, K., Perruchoud, A.P., Simon, H.U. J. Exp. Med. (1996) [Pubmed]
  26. beta1 integrins are critically involved in neutrophil locomotion in extravascular tissue In vivo. Werr, J., Xie, X., Hedqvist, P., Ruoslahti, E., Lindbom, L. J. Exp. Med. (1998) [Pubmed]
  27. Activation of platelets by platelet-activating factor (PAF) derived from IgE-sensitized basophils. II. The role of serine proteases, cyclic nucleotides, and contractile elements in PAF-induced secretion. Henson, P.M., Oades, Z.G. J. Exp. Med. (1976) [Pubmed]
  28. Various authentic chemoattractants mediating leukocyte adherence inhibition. Thomson, D.M. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1984) [Pubmed]
  29. Macrophages that have ingested apoptotic cells in vitro inhibit proinflammatory cytokine production through autocrine/paracrine mechanisms involving TGF-beta, PGE2, and PAF. Fadok, V.A., Bratton, D.L., Konowal, A., Freed, P.W., Westcott, J.Y., Henson, P.M. J. Clin. Invest. (1998) [Pubmed]
  30. Neutral endopeptidase and kininase II mediate glucocorticoid inhibition of neurogenic inflammation in the rat trachea. Piedimonte, G., McDonald, D.M., Nadel, J.A. J. Clin. Invest. (1991) [Pubmed]
  31. Analysis of signal transduction pathways in human eosinophils activated by chemoattractants and the T-helper 2-derived cytokines interleukin-4 and interleukin-5. Coffer, P.J., Schweizer, R.C., Dubois, G.R., Maikoe, T., Lammers, J.W., Koenderman, L. Blood (1998) [Pubmed]
  32. Modulation of endothelial cell functions by different molecular species of interleukin 1. Dejana, E., Breviario, F., Erroi, A., Bussolino, F., Mussoni, L., Gramse, M., Pintucci, G., Casali, B., Dinarello, C.A., Van Damme, J. Blood (1987) [Pubmed]
  33. VEGF-mediated endothelial P-selectin translocation: role of VEGF receptors and endogenous PAF synthesis. Rollin, S., Lemieux, C., Maliba, R., Favier, J., Villeneuve, L.R., Allen, B.G., Soker, S., Bazan, N.G., Merhi, Y., Sirois, M.G. Blood (2004) [Pubmed]
  34. Low-density lipoprotein receptor knockout mice exhibit exaggerated microvascular responses to inflammatory stimuli. Henninger, D.D., Gerritsen, M.E., Granger, D.N. Circ. Res. (1997) [Pubmed]
  35. Glucocorticoid receptor regulates expression of L-selectin and CD11/CD18 on human neutrophils. Filep, J.G., Delalandre, A., Payette, Y., Földes-Filep, E. Circulation (1997) [Pubmed]
  36. Lysophosphatidylcholine: a chemotactic factor for human monocytes and its potential role in atherogenesis. Quinn, M.T., Parthasarathy, S., Steinberg, D. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1988) [Pubmed]
  37. E-selectin permits communication between PAF receptors and TRPC channels in human neutrophils. McMeekin, S.R., Dransfield, I., Rossi, A.G., Haslett, C., Walker, T.R. Blood (2006) [Pubmed]
  38. GAS6 inhibits granulocyte adhesion to endothelial cells. Avanzi, G.C., Gallicchio, M., Bottarel, F., Gammaitoni, L., Cavalloni, G., Buonfiglio, D., Bragardo, M., Bellomo, G., Albano, E., Fantozzi, R., Garbarino, G., Varnum, B., Aglietta, M., Saglio, G., Dianzani, U., Dianzani, C. Blood (1998) [Pubmed]
  39. Inflammation and platelet-activating factor production during hepatic ischemia/reperfusion. Zhou, W., McCollum, M.O., Levine, B.A., Olson, M.S. Hepatology (1992) [Pubmed]
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