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MeSH Review

Heart Atria

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Disease relevance of Heart Atria

  • These results demonstrate that enhanced agonist-stimulated eicosanoid synthesis following rabbit left ventricular myocardial infarction occurs largely in the right atrium, and that this effect is independent of the activity of prostaglandin synthetic enzymes [1].
  • Progressive cardiac hypertrophy was accompanied by increased ANP mRNA prevalence throughout the heart and increased BNP mRNA in the left atrium [2].
  • Tumour thrombus into the vena cava or right atrium requires thoracotomy and hypothermic circulatory arrest for successful removal of the tumour, but should not be done if extensive nodal or frank metastatic disease is present [3].
  • We describe a case of Wilms' tumor in a 6-yr-old girl which extended from the right kidney and completely obstructed the inferior vena cava and hepatic veins to the level of the right atrium, producing an acute Budd-Chiari syndrome [4].
  • For every patient the efficacy of the treatment was evaluated by comparing control and posttherapeutic values after the bolus injection of 15,000 IU/kg body weight urokinase (urinary source) administered in 10 min in the right atrium, followed by continuous intravenous full-dose heparin therapy [5].

High impact information on Heart Atria

  • Volume expansion distends baroreceptors in the right atria, carotid-aortic sinuses, and kidney, altering afferent input to the brain stem and hence the hypothalamus, resulting in stimulation via ANPergic neurons in the hypothalamus of oxytocin release from the neurohypophysis that circulates to the right atrium to stimulate ANP release [6].
  • Three adults have had life-threatening perforations of the vena cava or right atrium associated with the use of subclavian hemodialysis catheters [7].
  • TIVCC resulted in marked activation of plasma AII and ET in plasma, right atrium, lung, and renal medulla which was further localized to cardiomyocytes, pulmonary, and renal epithelial cells [8].
  • Studies of exogenous arachidonate metabolism in microsomes prepared from various regions of the heart showed that while prostaglandin synthetic capacity is preferentially localized to the right atrium, right atria from normal and infarcted hearts have similar thromboxane and PGE2 synthetic capacity [1].
  • Injection of norepinephrine into the perfused lobar artery also increased pressure in the lobar artery and small vein but decreased pressure in the left atrium [9].

Chemical compound and disease context of Heart Atria


Biological context of Heart Atria


Anatomical context of Heart Atria


Associations of Heart Atria with chemical compounds


Gene context of Heart Atria

  • Changes in plasma ANP correlated with changes in ANP content in the right atrium, as demonstrated by RIA [29].
  • In adult rats ERbeta was decreased dramatically in the left atrium (20-fold) and, to a lesser extent in the other heart chambers (2- to 4-fold) [29].
  • The expression level of the MMP-9 was also higher in the PAF group than in the RSR group, however, the diameter of the left atrium was similar in both groups [30].
  • Through looping Pitx2 is present in the left atrium, in the ventral portion of the ventricles and in the left-ventral part of the outflow tract [31].
  • Corin mRNA expression was decreased in both atria in shunt animals [right atrium: control 0.638 +/- 0.004 arbitrary units (AU), shunt 0.566 +/- 0.014 AU, P < 0.001; left atrium: control 0.564 +/- 0.009 AU, shunt 0.464 +/- 0.009 AU, P < 0.001] [32].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Heart Atria


  1. Exaggerated atrial arachidonate metabolism in rabbit left ventricular myocardial infarction. Evers, A.S., Dunkel, C.G., Saffitz, J.E., Needleman, P. J. Clin. Invest. (1987) [Pubmed]
  2. Differential regulation of natriuretic peptide receptor messenger RNAs during the development of cardiac hypertrophy in the rat. Brown, L.A., Nunez, D.J., Wilkins, M.R. J. Clin. Invest. (1993) [Pubmed]
  3. Kidney cancer. Vogelzang, N.J., Stadler, W.M. Lancet (1998) [Pubmed]
  4. Metastatic Wilms' tumor causing acute hepatic-vein occlusion (Budd-Chiari syndrome). Schraut, W.H., Chilcote, R.R. Gastroenterology (1985) [Pubmed]
  5. Effects of a single bolus of urokinase in patients with life-threatening pulmonary emboli: a descriptive trial. Petitpretz, P., Simmoneau, G., Cerrina, J., Musset, D., Dreyfus, M., Vandenbroek, M.D., Duroux, P. Circulation (1984) [Pubmed]
  6. Atrial natriuretic peptide in brain and pituitary gland. Gutkowska, J., Antunes-Rodrigues, J., McCann, S.M. Physiol. Rev. (1997) [Pubmed]
  7. Cardiothoracic emergencies associated with subclavian hemodialysis catheters. Barton, B.R., Hermann, G., Weil, R. JAMA (1983) [Pubmed]
  8. Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibition modulates endogenous endothelin in chronic canine thoracic inferior vena caval constriction. Clavell, A.L., Mattingly, M.T., Stevens, T.L., Nir, A., Wright, S., Aarhus, L.L., Heublein, D.M., Burnett, J.C. J. Clin. Invest. (1996) [Pubmed]
  9. Influence of sympathetic stimulation and vasoactive substances on the canine pulmonary veins. Kadowitz, P.J., Joiner, P.D., Hyman, A.L. J. Clin. Invest. (1975) [Pubmed]
  10. Cholinergically mediated tachyarrhythmias induced by a single extrastimulus in the isolated canine right atrium. Schuessler, R.B., Grayson, T.M., Bromberg, B.I., Cox, J.L., Boineau, J.P. Circ. Res. (1992) [Pubmed]
  11. Assessment of left atrial pressure-area relation in humans by means of retrograde left atrial catheterization and echocardiographic automatic boundary detection: effects of dobutamine. Stefanadis, C., Dernellis, J., Stratos, C., Tsiamis, E., Tsioufis, C., Toutouzas, K., Vlachopoulos, C., Pitsavos, C., Toutouzas, P. J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  12. New synthetic flavonoids as potent protectors against doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity. van Acker, F.A., Hulshof, J.W., Haenen, G.R., Menge, W.M., van der Vijgh, W.J., Bast, A. Free Radic. Biol. Med. (2001) [Pubmed]
  13. Atrial contractility affects phasic blood flow velocity of atrial small vessels in the dog. Kimura, A., Hiramatsu, O., Wada, Y., Yada, T., Yamamoto, T., Goto, M., Ogasawara, Y., Tsujioka, K., Kajiya, F. Cardiovasc. Res. (1992) [Pubmed]
  14. Atrial natriuretic peptide: a new factor in blood pressure control. Lang, R.E., Unger, T., Ganten, D. J. Hypertens. (1987) [Pubmed]
  15. In search of afferent pathways of a cardiogenic hypertensive chemoreflex. Thames, M.D., Johannsen, U.J., Mark, A.L. Circulation (1987) [Pubmed]
  16. Natriuretic peptides as cardiac hormones in normotensive and spontaneously hypertensive rats. The ventricle is a major site of synthesis and secretion of brain natriuretic peptide. Ogawa, Y., Nakao, K., Mukoyama, M., Hosoda, K., Shirakami, G., Arai, H., Saito, Y., Suga, S., Jougasaki, M., Imura, H. Circ. Res. (1991) [Pubmed]
  17. The neuroendocrine control of atrial natriuretic peptide release. Antunes-Rodrigues, J., Favaretto, A.L., Gutkowska, J., McCann, S.M. Mol. Psychiatry (1997) [Pubmed]
  18. Tissue specific expression of rat peptidylglycine alpha-amidating monooxygenase activity and mRNA. Braas, K.M., Stoffers, D.A., Eipper, B.A., May, V. Mol. Endocrinol. (1989) [Pubmed]
  19. Mechanisms of steric and cooperative actions of alcuronium on cardiac muscarinic acetylcholine receptors. Proska, J., Tucek, S. Mol. Pharmacol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  20. Assessment of flow events at the ductus venosus-inferior vena cava junction and at the foramen ovale in fetal sheep by use of multimodal ultrasound. Schmidt, K.G., Silverman, N.H., Rudolph, A.M. Circulation (1996) [Pubmed]
  21. Partial anomalous pulmonary venous return. Van Meter, C., LeBlanc, J.G., Culpepper, W.S., Ochsner, J.L. Circulation (1990) [Pubmed]
  22. Rat heart: a site of oxytocin production and action. Jankowski, M., Hajjar, F., Kawas, S.A., Mukaddam-Daher, S., Hoffman, G., McCann, S.M., Gutkowska, J. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1998) [Pubmed]
  23. Cloning and expression of a rat cardiac delayed rectifier potassium channel. Paulmichl, M., Nasmith, P., Hellmiss, R., Reed, K., Boyle, W.A., Nerbonne, J.M., Peralta, E.G., Clapham, D.E. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1991) [Pubmed]
  24. Metaiodobenzylguanidine [131I] scintigraphy detects impaired myocardial sympathetic neuronal transport function of canine mechanical-overload heart failure. Rabinovitch, M.A., Rose, C.P., Rouleau, J.L., Chartrand, C., Wieland, D.M., Lepanto, L., Legault, F., Suissa, S., Rosenthall, L., Burgess, J.H. Circ. Res. (1987) [Pubmed]
  25. Digoxin binding in right atrium. Jogestrand, T. Lancet (1978) [Pubmed]
  26. Safety of atrial defibrillation shocks synchronized to narrow and wide QRS complexes during atrial pacing protocols simulating atrial fibrillation in dogs. Keelan, E.T., Krum, D., Hare, J., Mughal, K., Li, H., Akhtar, M., Jazayeri, M.R. Circulation (1997) [Pubmed]
  27. Exercise thallium-201 scintigraphy in dogs: effects of long-term coronary occlusion and collateral development on early and late scintigraphic images. Cohen, M.V., Steingart, R.M. Circulation (1985) [Pubmed]
  28. Demonstration of lateral and epicardial border zone salvage by flurbiprofen using an in vivo method for assessing myocardium at risk. Darsee, J.R., Kloner, R.A., Braunwald, E. Circulation (1981) [Pubmed]
  29. Estrogen receptors activate atrial natriuretic peptide in the rat heart. Jankowski, M., Rachelska, G., Donghao, W., McCann, S.M., Gutkowska, J. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2001) [Pubmed]
  30. Matrix metalloproteinase-9 contributes to human atrial remodeling during atrial fibrillation. Nakano, Y., Niida, S., Dote, K., Takenaka, S., Hirao, H., Miura, F., Ishida, M., Shingu, T., Sueda, T., Yoshizumi, M., Chayama, K. J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  31. Pitx2 expression defines a left cardiac lineage of cells: evidence for atrial and ventricular molecular isomerism in the iv/iv mice. Campione, M., Ros, M.A., Icardo, J.M., Piedra, E., Christoffels, V.M., Schweickert, A., Blum, M., Franco, D., Moorman, A.F. Dev. Biol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  32. Rat corin gene: molecular cloning and reduced expression in experimental heart failure. Langenickel, T.H., Pagel, I., Buttgereit, J., Tenner, K., Lindner, M., Dietz, R., Willenbrock, R., Bader, M. Am. J. Physiol. Heart Circ. Physiol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  33. Characterization of low right atrial isthmus as the slow conduction zone and pharmacological target in typical atrial flutter. Tai, C.T., Chen, S.A., Chiang, C.E., Lee, S.H., Ueng, K.C., Wen, Z.C., Huang, J.L., Chen, Y.J., Yu, W.C., Feng, A.N., Chiou, C.W., Chang, M.S. Circulation (1997) [Pubmed]
  34. Buffer agents do not reverse intramyocardial acidosis during cardiac resuscitation. Kette, F., Weil, M.H., von Planta, M., Gazmuri, R.J., Rackow, E.C. Circulation (1990) [Pubmed]
  35. Membrane-associated peptidylglycine alpha-amidating monooxygenase in the heart. Eipper, B.A., May, V., Braas, K.M. J. Biol. Chem. (1988) [Pubmed]
  36. Right atrial myxoma with right to left shunting and mitral valve prolapse. Meyers, S.N., Shapiro, S.E., Barresi, V., DeBoer, A.A., Pavel, D.I., Gracey, D.R., Suhre, D.E., Buehler, J.H. Am. J. Med. (1977) [Pubmed]
  37. Effects of angiotensin II type 1 receptor antagonist on electrical and structural remodeling in atrial fibrillation. Kumagai, K., Nakashima, H., Urata, H., Gondo, N., Arakawa, K., Saku, K. J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. (2003) [Pubmed]
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