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MeSH Review


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Disease relevance of Oxygenators


High impact information on Oxygenators

  • Thirty anesthetized dogs were placed on CPB using bubble oxygenators with 50% O2 (n = 10) or 100% O2 (n = 10) to produce a wide range in the number of gaseous microemboli or membrane oxygenators with 50% O2 (n = 10) to avoid microemboli [6].
  • The cells were recovered from the oxygenator membrane by washing with EDTA [7].
  • The extracorporeal circuit was nonpulsatile with a bubble oxygenator administering 3-5% CO2 in the main group of hypercapnic patients (n = 59) and no CO2 in a second group of hypocapnic patients [8].
  • The 16 dogs given adenosine deaminase were further subdivided into those perfused with blood deoxygenated by a donor canine lung (group 1, n = 11) and those perfused with blood from a paediatric oxygenator (group 2, n = 5) [9].
  • CONCLUSIONS: The uptake of isoflurane into blood via PMP oxygenators during CPB is severely limited [10].

Chemical compound and disease context of Oxygenators

  • Parabiotic experiments developed a refractory acidosis (pH at 120 min: parabiotic 7.31 +/- 0.14 versus oxygenator 7.42 +/- 0.4, P = 0.01) related to a progressive rise in lactate (at 120 min: parabiotic 4.0 +/- 2.6 mmol/L versus oxygenator 0.71 +/- 1.3 mmol/L, P < 0.01) [11].
  • The gaseous microemboli (GME) production and gas transfer characteristics of two series of bubble oxygenators (Harvey H-1500 and Bentley BOS-10) were evaluated during clinical perfusion in 33 adult patients during open heart surgery for acquired valvular and ischaemic heart disease [12].
  • In this preliminary study, samples of blood for plasma histamine were drawn from a mixed group of congenital cardiac patients featuring varying degrees of cyanosis, differing hypothermic operative conditions and utilising two oxygenator systems [13].

Biological context of Oxygenators


Anatomical context of Oxygenators

  • The left anterior descending coronary artery was perfused via either of two pressurized (80 mmHg) reservoirs; reservoir 1 (control) was supplied with arterial blood free of isoflurane, and reservoir 2 was supplied with blood from an extracorporeal oxygenator, which was provided with 95% O2/5% CO2 gas that passed through calibrated vaporizer [18].
  • Cranial venous blood was drained into a bubble oxygenator in which an isoflurane vaporizer was placed in line with the gas flow, and arterial blood was infused into a carotid artery with a roller pump [19].
  • However, further reduction of heparin administration may not be advisable, since monocytes were still activated in the coated oxygenator [20].
  • Free radical production, granulocyte activation, and hypoxanthine metabolism were assessed separately in the circulations drained by the inferior and superior venae cavae, as well as in the oxygenator [21].
  • The degree of activation by poly HEMA, when corrected for surface area, was quite similar to that observed for dialysis and oxygenator membranes [22].

Associations of Oxygenators with chemical compounds


Gene context of Oxygenators


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Oxygenators

  • Washin and washout of isoflurane administered via bubble oxygenators during hypothermic cardiopulmonary bypass [33].
  • Paired serum tobramycin concentrations were obtained pre- and postmembrane oxygenator during ECMO in six sheep [26].
  • The left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD) of 11 anesthetized and mechanically ventilated dogs was perfused at constant perfusion pressure (80 mm Hg) with enflurane-free blood or with blood equilibrated in an extracorporeal oxygenator with enflurane (1.1%, 2.2%, 4.4%) [34].
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: A simplified extracorporeal cardiopulmonary life support (ECLS) system was assembled consisting of a centrifugal pump head, heat exchanger, membranous oxygenator, percutaneous cannulas, and heparin-bonded circuitry [35].
  • In this article, the authors discuss extracorporeal CO2 removal, venovenous intravena caval oxygenator, and tracheal gas insufflation as adjuncts to CO2 removal and nitric oxide, surfactant replacement therapy, perfluorocarbon-associated gas exchange, and prone positioning as adjuncts to oxygenation [36].


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  2. Conversion of postischemic ventricular fibrillation with intraaortic infusion of potassium chloride. Ovrum, E., Tangen, G., Holen, E.A., Ringdal, M.A., Istad, R. Ann. Thorac. Surg. (1995) [Pubmed]
  3. Clinical study of blood trauma during perfusion with membrane and bubble oxygenators. van den Dungen, J.J., Karliczek, G.F., Brenken, U., Homan van der Heide, J.N., Wildevuur, C.R. J. Thorac. Cardiovasc. Surg. (1982) [Pubmed]
  4. Stragegies to reduce surface area requirements for carbon dioxide removal for an intravenacaval gas exchange device. Tao, W., Bidani, A., Cardenas, V.J., Niranjan, S.C., Zwischenberger, J.B. ASAIO journal (American Society for Artificial Internal Organs : 1992) (1995) [Pubmed]
  5. Nicotinamide relaxes vascular smooth muscle by inhibiting myosin light chain kinase-dependent signaling pathways: implications for anticancer efficacy. Ruddock, M.W., Hirst, D.G. Oncol. Res. (2004) [Pubmed]
  6. Significance of gaseous microemboli in the cerebral circulation during cardiopulmonary bypass in dogs. Johnston, W.E., Stump, D.A., DeWitt, D.S., Vinten-Johansen, J., O'Steen, W.K., James, R.L., Prough, D.S. Circulation (1993) [Pubmed]
  7. Tissue factor is expressed on monocytes during simulated extracorporeal circulation. Kappelmayer, J., Bernabei, A., Edmunds, L.H., Edgington, T.S., Colman, R.W. Circ. Res. (1993) [Pubmed]
  8. Brain luxury perfusion during cardiopulmonary bypass in humans. A study of the cerebral blood flow response to changes in CO2, O2, and blood pressure. Henriksen, L. J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. (1986) [Pubmed]
  9. Adenosine deaminase attenuates canine coronary vasodilatation during regional non-ischaemic myocardial hypoxia. Merrill, G.F., Downey, H.F., Yonekura, S., Watanabe, N., Jones, C.E. Cardiovasc. Res. (1988) [Pubmed]
  10. In vivo uptake and elimination of isoflurane by different membrane oxygenators during cardiopulmonary bypass. Wiesenack, C., Wiesner, G., Keyl, C., Gruber, M., Philipp, A., Ritzka, M., Prasser, C., Taeger, K. Anesthesiology (2002) [Pubmed]
  11. Membrane oxygenation is superior to parabiotic support in blood-reperfused isolated hearts. Stringham, J.C., Mix, D.C., Petersen, G.G., Sorensen, S.J. J. Surg. Res. (2005) [Pubmed]
  12. A clinical evaluation of the gas transfer characteristics and gaseous microemboli production of two bubble oxygenators. Pearson, D.T., Holden, M.P., Poslad, S.J., Murray, A., Waterhouse, P.S. Life support systems : the journal of the European Society for Artificial Organs. (1984) [Pubmed]
  13. Plasma histamine profiles in paediatric cardiopulmonary bypass. Marath, A., Man, W., Taylor, K.M., Deverall, P.B., Parsons, S., Jones, O.H., Lincoln, C., Kimberley, A. Agents Actions (1988) [Pubmed]
  14. Complement activation during extracorporeal circulation. In vitro comparison of Duraflo II heparin-coated and uncoated oxygenator circuits. Svennevig, J.L., Geiran, O.R., Karlsen, H., Pedersen, T., Mollnes, T.E., Kongsgard, U., Frøysaker, T. J. Thorac. Cardiovasc. Surg. (1993) [Pubmed]
  15. The effect of prostaglandin E1 during cardiopulmonary bypass on renal function after cardiac surgery. Abe, K., Fujino, Y., Sakakibara, T. Eur. J. Clin. Pharmacol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  16. Hemocompatibility of PMEA coated oxygenators used for extracorporeal circulation procedures. Zimmermann, A.K., Aebert, H., Reiz, A., Freitag, M., Husseini, M., Ziemer, G., Wendel, H.P. ASAIO journal (American Society for Artificial Internal Organs : 1992) (2004) [Pubmed]
  17. Platelet and neutrophil distributions in pump oxygenator circuits. III. Influence of nitric oxide gas infusion. Sly, M.K., Prager, M.D., Li, J., Harris, F.B., Shastri, P., Bhujle, R., Chao, R., Kulkarni, P.V., Constantinescu, A., Jessen, M.E., Eberhart, R.C. ASAIO journal (American Society for Artificial Internal Organs : 1992) (1996) [Pubmed]
  18. Coronary vasodilation by isoflurane. Abrupt versus gradual administration. Crystal, G.J., Czinn, E.A., Silver, J.M., Salem, M.R. Anesthesiology (1995) [Pubmed]
  19. Does the brain influence somatic responses to noxious stimuli during isoflurane anesthesia? Borges, M., Antognini, J.F. Anesthesiology (1994) [Pubmed]
  20. Induction of monocyte tissue factor procoagulant activity during coronary artery bypass surgery is reduced with heparin-coated extracorporeal circuit. Barstad, R.M., Ovrum, E., Ringdal, M.A., Oystese, R., Hamers, M.J., Veiby, O.P., Rolfsen, T., Stephens, R.W., Sakariassen, K.S. Br. J. Haematol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  21. Regional generation of free oxygen radicals during cardiopulmonary bypass in children. Pesonen, E.J., Korpela, R., Peltola, K., Leijala, M., Sairanen, H., Raivio, K.O., Venge, P., Andersson, S. J. Thorac. Cardiovasc. Surg. (1995) [Pubmed]
  22. Complement activation by hydroxyethylmethacrylate-ethylmethacrylate copolymers. Payne, M.S., Horbett, T.A. J. Biomed. Mater. Res. (1987) [Pubmed]
  23. Scavenging enflurane from extracorporeal pump oxygenators. Muravchick, S. Anesthesiology (1977) [Pubmed]
  24. A method for preferential delivery of volatile anesthetics to the in situ goat brain. Antognini, J.F., Kien, N.D. Anesthesiology (1994) [Pubmed]
  25. Nitric oxide inhibits neutrophil adhesion during experimental extracorporeal circulation. Chello, M., Mastroroberto, P., Marchese, A.R., Maltese, G., Santangelo, E., Amantea, B. Anesthesiology (1998) [Pubmed]
  26. Effect of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation on tobramycin pharmacokinetics in sheep. Möller, J.C., Gilman, J.T., Kearns, G.L., Sussmane, J.B., Raszynski, A., Wolfsdorf, J., Reed, M.D. Crit. Care Med. (1992) [Pubmed]
  27. Loss of nitroglycerin to cardiopulmonary bypass apparatus. Dasta, J.F., Jacobi, J., Wu, L.S., Sokoloski, T., Beckley, P., Reilley, T.E., Howie, M.B. Crit. Care Med. (1983) [Pubmed]
  28. Initiation of white cell activation during cardiopulmonary bypass: cytokines and receptors. Cameron, D. J. Cardiovasc. Pharmacol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  29. Influence of 4 different membrane oxygenators on inflammation-like processes during extracorporeal circulation with pulsatile and non-pulsatile flow. Dapper, F., Neppl, H., Wozniak, G., Strube, I., Boldt, J., Hehrlein, F.W., Neuhof, H. European journal of cardio-thoracic surgery : official journal of the European Association for Cardio-thoracic Surgery. (1992) [Pubmed]
  30. Clinical and laboratory evaluation of the Shiley S-100-A oxygenator-heat exchanger. Roesler, M.F., Bull, C., Ionescu, M.T. The Journal of cardiovascular surgery. (1980) [Pubmed]
  31. Influence of oxygenator type on the prevalence and extent of microembolic retinal ischemia during cardiopulmonary bypass. Assessment by digital image analysis. Blauth, C.I., Smith, P.L., Arnold, J.V., Jagoe, J.R., Wootton, R., Taylor, K.M. J. Thorac. Cardiovasc. Surg. (1990) [Pubmed]
  32. Antidiuretic hormone levels during cardiopulmonary bypass. Philbin, D.M., Coggins, C.H., Wilson, N., Sokoloski, J. J. Thorac. Cardiovasc. Surg. (1977) [Pubmed]
  33. Washin and washout of isoflurane administered via bubble oxygenators during hypothermic cardiopulmonary bypass. Nussmeier, N.A., Lambert, M.L., Moskowitz, G.J., Cohen, N.H., Weiskopf, R.B., Fisher, D.M., Eger, E.I. Anesthesiology (1989) [Pubmed]
  34. The direct effects of enflurane on coronary blood flow, myocardial oxygen consumption, and myocardial segmental shortening in in situ canine hearts. Gurevicius, J., Holmes, C.B., Salem, M.R., Abdel-Halim, A., Crystal, G.J. Anesth. Analg. (1996) [Pubmed]
  35. Extracorporeal cardiopulmonary life support with heparin-bonded circuitry in the resuscitation of massively injured trauma patients. Perchinsky, M.J., Long, W.B., Hill, J.G., Parsons, J.A., Bennett, J.B. Am. J. Surg. (1995) [Pubmed]
  36. Adjuncts to mechanical ventilation. Nahum, A., Shapiro, R. Clin. Chest Med. (1996) [Pubmed]
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