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Chemical Compound Review

Nitronox     molecular oxygen; nitrous oxide

Synonyms: Entonox, Eutonal, Kalinox, Nitralgin, Anesoxyn-50, ...
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Disease relevance of Eutonal


Psychiatry related information on Eutonal


High impact information on Eutonal

  • Nitrous oxide oxidises vitamin B12 in vitro, and probably also in vivo when premixed 50% nitrous oxide and 50% oxygen mixture ('Entonox') is given [8].
  • Nitrous oxide (Entonox) inhalation and tolerance of transrectal ultrasound guided prostate biopsy: a double-blind randomized controlled study [9].
  • PURPOSE: We performed a randomized, placebo controlled double-blind trial to evaluate the effectiveness of Entonox (BOC Gases, Manchester, United Kingdom), that is 50% nitrous oxide and oxygen, as analgesia during transrectal ultrasound guided prostate biopsy [9].
  • Analgesia with sevoflurane during labour: II. Sevoflurane compared with Entonox for labour analgesia [10].
  • We surveyed 102 maternity suites to investigate whether the guidelines of the Association of Anaesthetists of Great Britain and Ireland, for the use of anti-infective filters or fully disposable anaesthetic breathing systems for each patient, were being followed with regard to Entonox equipment on labour wards [11].

Biological context of Eutonal

  • Intracranial pressure (i.c.p.) increased by 22.7 mm Hg (SD 10.62) during chest physiotherapy with Entonox, compared with 10.5 mm Hg (SD 10.4) with oxygen 100% (P greater than 0.02) [3].
  • Thirty-five patients who had undergone uncomplicated cardiac surgery were randomly allocated to receive either Entonox or isoflurane 0.25% in Entonox as inhalational analgesia for the removal of their two chest drains [12].
  • Entonox in general practice [13].
  • The results showed that both TENS and ENTONOX could be used in early labour up to 5-6 cm cervical dilatation till the frequency of contractions was nearly 5 in 10 min or the first 3-4 hr from the time patients first requested pain relief in labour when frequency of contractions was nearly 4 in 10 min [14].
  • Univariate analysis showed that perineal trauma, use of Entonox, maternal age at delivery and breastfeeding also influenced LFT concentration significantly [15].

Associations of Eutonal with other chemical compounds


Gene context of Eutonal

  • Accurox (C.R. Bard Canada Inc.) blenders, disconnected from their facemasks, were studied using a primary flow of Entonox [20].
  • All received 50% nitrous oxide in oxygen (Entonox; AGA, Rueil-Malmaison, France) before endoscopy and some of them again during endoscopy [21].
  • For IVF under sedation, 18 centres used midazolam, five used diazepam, three used opioids, one used entonox and the remaining ones a combination [22].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Eutonal

  • CONCLUSIONS: Our study shows that Entonox is a safe, rapidly acting and effective form of analgesia for the pain of prostate biopsy [9].
  • Forty-nine (88%) patients randomized to Entonox underwent complete colonoscopy without conversion to intravenous medications [23].
  • Half the mothers received epidural analgesia and the rest inhaled Entonox for pain relief [4].
  • The effect of Entonox was of short duration, allowing the children to leave the endoscopy unit without need for a long recovery period [21].
  • A comparison was made with a control group of 575 mothers who had intermittent inhalation of Entonox only for a mean duration of 3 hours 6 minutes (574 mothers) [24].


  1. A double-blind trial of patient-controlled nitrous-oxide/oxygen analgesia in myocardial infarction. Kerr, F., Brown, M.G., Irving, J.B., Hoskins, M.R., Ewing, D.J., Kirby, B.J. Lancet (1975) [Pubmed]
  2. Reducing the potential risk of cross-infection from Entonox equipment. Bickford Smith, P.J. Anaesthesia. (2000) [Pubmed]
  3. I.c.p. increases with 50% nitrous oxide in oxygen in severe head injuries during controlled ventilation. Moss, E., McDowall, D.G. British journal of anaesthesia. (1979) [Pubmed]
  4. The effects of Entonox and epidural analgesia on arterial oxygen saturation of women in labour. Arfeen, Z., Armstrong, P.J., Whitfield, A. Anaesthesia. (1994) [Pubmed]
  5. Intra-articular lignocaine versus Entonox for reduction of acute anterior shoulder dislocation. Gleeson, A.P., Graham, C.A., Meyer, A.D. Injury. (1999) [Pubmed]
  6. Minor procedures in the accident and emergency department: can Entonox help? Payne, C.G., Edbrooke, D.L., Davies, G.K. Archives of emergency medicine. (1991) [Pubmed]
  7. Diamorphine for pain relief in labour : a randomised controlled trial comparing intramuscular injection and patient-controlled analgesia. McInnes, R.J., Hillan, E., Clark, D., Gilmour, H. BJOG : an international journal of obstetrics and gynaecology. (2004) [Pubmed]
  8. Megaloblastic haemopoiesis in patients receiving nitrous oxide. Amess, J.A., Burman, J.F., Rees, G.M., Nancekievill, D.G., Mollin, D.L. Lancet (1978) [Pubmed]
  9. Nitrous oxide (Entonox) inhalation and tolerance of transrectal ultrasound guided prostate biopsy: a double-blind randomized controlled study. Masood, J., Shah, N., Lane, T., Andrews, H., Simpson, P., Barua, J.M. J. Urol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  10. Analgesia with sevoflurane during labour: II. Sevoflurane compared with Entonox for labour analgesia. Yeo, S.T., Holdcroft, A., Yentis, S.M., Stewart, A., Bassett, P. British journal of anaesthesia (2007) [Pubmed]
  11. Anti-infective measures and Entonox equipment: a survey. Bajekal, R.R., Turner, R., Yentis, S.M. Anaesthesia. (2000) [Pubmed]
  12. Isoflurane for removal of chest drains after cardiac surgery. Bryden, F.M., McFarlane, H., Tunstall, M.E., Ross, J.A. Anaesthesia. (1997) [Pubmed]
  13. Entonox in general practice. Johnson, R.A. The Practitioner. (1979) [Pubmed]
  14. Effectiveness of transcutaneous electric nerve stimulator for pain relief in labour. Chia, Y.T., Arulkumaran, S., Chua, S., Ratnam, S.S. Asia-Oceania journal of obstetrics and gynaecology / AOFOG. (1990) [Pubmed]
  15. Factors influencing postnatal liver function tests. David, A.L., Kotecha, M., Girling, J.C. BJOG : an international journal of obstetrics and gynaecology. (2000) [Pubmed]
  16. Self-administered isoflurane in labour. A comparative study with Entonox. McLeod, D.D., Ramayya, G.P., Tunstall, M.E. Anaesthesia. (1985) [Pubmed]
  17. Maternal hypoxaemia during labour and delivery: the influence of analgesia and effect on neonatal outcome. Griffin, R.P., Reynolds, F. Anaesthesia. (1995) [Pubmed]
  18. Epidural fentanyl and 0.5% bupivacaine for elective caesarean section. King, M.J., Bowden, M.I., Cooper, G.M. Anaesthesia. (1990) [Pubmed]
  19. Nitrous oxide for colonoscopy discomfort: a randomized double-blind study. Lindblom, A., Jansson, O., Jeppsson, B., Törnebrandt, K., Benoni, C., Hedenbro, J.L. Endoscopy. (1994) [Pubmed]
  20. Postoperative nitrous oxide analgesia. Administration from air entrainment oxygen masks with a primary flow of Entonox. Goddard, J.M. Anaesthesia. (1986) [Pubmed]
  21. Nitrous oxide sedation in pediatric patients undergoing gastrointestinal endoscopy. Michaud, L., Gottrand, F., Ganga-Zandzou, P.S., Ouali, M., Vetter-Laffargue, A., Lambilliotte, A., Dalmas, S., Turck, D. J. Pediatr. Gastroenterol. Nutr. (1999) [Pubmed]
  22. Anaesthesia for assisted conception: a survey of UK practice. Bokhari, A., Pollard, B.J. European journal of anaesthesiology. (1999) [Pubmed]
  23. Nitrous oxide for colonoscopy: a randomized controlled study. Forbes, G.M., Collins, B.J. Gastrointest. Endosc. (2000) [Pubmed]
  24. Acceptability of continuous nasal nitrous oxide during labour--a field trial in six maternity hospitals. Arthurs, G.J., Rosen, M. Anaesthesia. (1981) [Pubmed]
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