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MeSH Review

Analgesia, Epidural

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  • We present a patient who received patient-controlled epidural analgesia (PCEA) with bupivacaine-morphine-droperidol mixture for one and half days following hemorrhoidectomy, developed paroxysmal adverse reactions of akathisia, dysphoria, and suicidal attempts 3 days after the initiation of the treatment [6].

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  1. Prospective, randomized comparison of epidural versus parenteral opioid analgesia in thoracic trauma. Moon, M.R., Luchette, F.A., Gibson, S.W., Crews, J., Sudarshan, G., Hurst, J.M., Davis, K., Johannigman, J.A., Frame, S.B., Fischer, J.E. Ann. Surg. (1999) [Pubmed]
  2. Difference in analgesia following epidural blockade in patients with postoperative or chronic low back pain. Raj, P.P., Knarr, D., Vigdorth, E., Gregg, R.V., Denson, D.D., Edström, H.H. Pain (1988) [Pubmed]
  3. A randomized sequential allocation study to determine the minimum effective analgesic concentration of levobupivacaine and ropivacaine in patients receiving epidural analgesia for labor. Benhamou, D., Ghosh, C., Mercier, F.J. Anesthesiology (2003) [Pubmed]
  4. Survey of 1057 patients receiving postoperative patient-controlled epidural analgesia. Wigfull, J., Welchew, E. Anaesthesia. (2001) [Pubmed]
  5. Double-blind comparison of intrapleural saline and 0.25% bupivacaine for ipsilateral shoulder pain after thoracotomy in patients receiving thoracic epidural analgesia. Pennefather, S.H., Akrofi, M.E., Kendall, J.B., Russell, G.N., Scawn, N.D. British journal of anaesthesia. (2005) [Pubmed]
  6. Delayed akathisia and suicidal attempts following epidural droperidol infusion--a case report. Hung, Y.C., Ho, Y.Y., Shen, C.L. Acta Anaesthesiol. Sin. (1999) [Pubmed]
  7. Preemptive epidural analgesia and recovery from radical prostatectomy: a randomized controlled trial. Gottschalk, A., Smith, D.S., Jobes, D.R., Kennedy, S.K., Lally, S.E., Noble, V.E., Grugan, K.F., Seifert, H.A., Cheung, A., Malkowicz, S.B., Gutsche, B.B., Wein, A.J. JAMA (1998) [Pubmed]
  8. Maternal pyrexia associated with the use of epidural analgesia in labour. Fusi, L., Steer, P.J., Maresh, M.J., Beard, R.W. Lancet (1989) [Pubmed]
  9. Prevention of postoperative lymphopenia and granulocytosis by epidural analgesia. Rem, J., Brandt, M.R., Kehlet, H. Lancet (1980) [Pubmed]
  10. Rapid decrease in plasma-triiodothyronine during surgery and epidural analgesia independent of afferent neurogenic stimuli and of cortisol. Brandt, M.R., Kehlet, H., Skovsted, L., Hansen, J.M. Lancet (1976) [Pubmed]
  11. Postoperative protein sparing with epidural analgesia and hypocaloric dextrose. Schricker, T., Meterissian, S., Wykes, L., Eberhart, L., Lattermann, R., Carli, F. Ann. Surg. (2004) [Pubmed]
  12. Fentanyl: clinical use as postoperative analgesic--epidural/intrathecal route. Grass, J.A. Journal of pain and symptom management. (1992) [Pubmed]
  13. A comparison of low-risk pregnant women booked for delivery in two systems of care: shared-care (consultant) and integrated general practice unit. II. Labour and delivery management and neonatal outcome. Klein, M., Lloyd, I., Redman, C., Bull, M., Turnbull, A.C. British journal of obstetrics and gynaecology. (1983) [Pubmed]
  14. A randomized trial of intrapartum analgesia in women with severe preeclampsia. Head, B.B., Owen, J., Vincent, R.D., Shih, G., Chestnut, D.H., Hauth, J.C. Obstetrics and gynecology. (2002) [Pubmed]
  15. A randomized trial of misoprostol and oxytocin for induction of labor: safety and efficacy. Kramer, R.L., Gilson, G.J., Morrison, D.S., Martin, D., Gonzales, J.L., Qualls, C.R. Obstetrics and gynecology. (1997) [Pubmed]
  16. Hypotension during epidural analgesia for Caesarean section. Arterial and central venous pressure changes after acute intravenous loading with two litres of Hartmann's solution. Lewis, M., Thomas, P., Wilkes, R.G. Anaesthesia. (1983) [Pubmed]
  17. Anticoagulant effect at the time of epidural catheter removal in patients receiving twice-daily or once-daily low-molecular-weight heparin and continuous epidural analgesia after orthopedic surgery. Douketis, J.D., Kinnon, K., Crowther, M.A. Thromb. Haemost. (2002) [Pubmed]
  18. Effect of epidural analgesia on metabolic profiles during and after surgery. Kehlet, H., Brandt, M.R., Hansen, A.P., Alberti, K.G. The British journal of surgery. (1979) [Pubmed]
  19. Minimum local analgesic dose of intrathecal bupivacaine in labor and the effect of intrathecal fentanyl. Stocks, G.M., Hallworth, S.P., Fernando, R., England, A.J., Columb, M.O., Lyons, G. Anesthesiology (2001) [Pubmed]
  20. Plasma concentrations of epidural bupivacaine in mother and newborn: 0.125% versus 0.375%. Van Zundert, A., Burm, A., Van Kleef, J., Spierdijk, J., Van der Aa, P., Smolders, F., Vaes, L., De Wolf, A. Anesth. Analg. (1987) [Pubmed]
  21. Electrophysiological effects of thoracic epidural analgesia in the dog heart in situ. Hotvedt, R., Platou, E.S., Refsum, H. Cardiovasc. Res. (1983) [Pubmed]
  22. The effect of ephedrine on intrapartum fetal heart rate after epidural analgesia. Pruszkowski, O., Goncalves, O., Vassilieff, N., Tsatsaris, V., Mignon, A. Obstetrics and gynecology. (2005) [Pubmed]
  23. Epidural buprenorphine--a double-blind study of postoperative analgesia and side effects. Lanz, E., Simko, G., Theiss, D., Glocke, M.H. Anesth. Analg. (1984) [Pubmed]
  24. Epinephrine increases spinal cord concentrations of [3H]-clonidine hydrochloride in rabbits after epidural infusion. Fu, E.S., Naidu, K.A., Prockop, L.D. Anesth. Analg. (1997) [Pubmed]
  25. Contribution of the scrotum and testes to scrotal and testicular thermoregulation in bulls and rams. Kastelic, J.P., Cook, R.B., Coulter, G.H. J. Reprod. Fertil. (1996) [Pubmed]
  26. Growth hormone after abdominal surgery attenuated forearm glutamine, alanine, 3-methylhistidine, and total amino acid efflux in patients receiving total parenteral nutrition. Mjaaland, M., Unneberg, K., Larsson, J., Nilsson, L., Revhaug, A. Ann. Surg. (1993) [Pubmed]
  27. Epidural opiates and local anesthetics for the management of cancer pain. Hogan, Q., Haddox, J.D., Abram, S., Weissman, D., Taylor, M.L., Janjan, N. Pain (1991) [Pubmed]
  28. Use of methylprednisolone in epidural analgesia. Haynes, G., Bailey, M.K., Davis, S., Mahaffey, J.E. Arch. Neurol. (1989) [Pubmed]
  29. Urinary function during epidural analgesia with methadone and morphine in post-cesarean section patients. Evron, S., Samueloff, A., Simon, A., Drenger, B., Magora, F. Pain (1985) [Pubmed]
  30. Critique of the Dornier HM3 lithotripter as a clinical algesimeter. Bromage, P.R., Husain, I., el-Faqih, S., Bonsu, A.K., Kadiwal, G.H., Seraj, P. Pain (1990) [Pubmed]
  31. The role of the phrenic nerves in stress response in upper abdominal surgery. Segawa, H., Mori, K., Kasai, K., Fukata, J., Nakao, K. Anesth. Analg. (1996) [Pubmed]
  32. Hormonal and neural blockade prevents the postoperative increase in amino acid clearance and urea synthesis. Heindorff, H., Schulze, S., Mogensen, T., Almdal, T., Kehlet, H., Vilstrup, H. Surgery (1992) [Pubmed]
  33. Labor affects cytokine production in newborns. Bessler, H., Kuperman, A., Beilin, B., Klinger, G., Gurary, N., Mozes, C., Sirota, L. Am. J. Reprod. Immunol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  34. Epidural analgesia and autonomic hyperreflexia: a case report. Katz, V.L., Thorp, J.M., Cefalo, R.C. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. (1990) [Pubmed]
  35. Advantages of the paramedian approach for lumbar epidural analgesia with catheter technique. A clinical comparison between midline and paramedian approaches. Blomberg, R.G., Jaanivald, A., Walther, S. Anaesthesia. (1989) [Pubmed]
  36. Cesarean delivery: a randomized trial of epidural analgesia versus intravenous meperidine analgesia during labor in nulliparous women. Sharma, S.K., Alexander, J.M., Messick, G., Bloom, S.L., McIntire, D.D., Wiley, J., Leveno, K.J. Anesthesiology (2002) [Pubmed]
  37. Epidural analgesia enhances functional exercise capacity and health-related quality of life after colonic surgery: results of a randomized trial. Carli, F., Mayo, N., Klubien, K., Schricker, T., Trudel, J., Belliveau, P. Anesthesiology (2002) [Pubmed]
  38. On thrombo-embolism after total hip replacement in epidural analgesia: a controlled study of dextran 70 and low-dose heparin combined with dihydroergotamine. Fredin, H.O., Rosberg, B., Arborelius, M., Nylander, G. The British journal of surgery. (1984) [Pubmed]
  39. Assessment of ketorolac as an adjuvant to fentanyl patient-controlled epidural analgesia after radical retropubic prostatectomy. Grass, J.A., Sakima, N.T., Valley, M., Fischer, K., Jackson, C., Walsh, P., Bourke, D.L. Anesthesiology (1993) [Pubmed]
  40. The effect of the addition of adrenaline to pethidine for patient-controlled epidural analgesia after caesarean section. Ngan Kee, W.D., Khaw, K.S., Ma, M.L. Anaesthesia. (1998) [Pubmed]
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