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Chemical Compound Review

FNLPNTL     (2S)-6-amino-2-[[(2S)-2- [[(2S)-2-[[(2S)-2...

Synonyms: FNLELFNLRYK, F-Peptide, AC1L3XGP, AR-1K7049, AC1Q6QP6, ...
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Disease relevance of Fnle-leu-phe-nle-tyr-lys


High impact information on Fnle-leu-phe-nle-tyr-lys


Biological context of Fnle-leu-phe-nle-tyr-lys


Anatomical context of Fnle-leu-phe-nle-tyr-lys

  • 4) X. laevis oocytes injected with the fMLP receptor message exhibited fMLP-dependent calcium mobilization and specific binding to the fMLP analog 125I-labeled fNle-Leu-Phe-Nle-Tyr-Lys (where Nle is norleucine and fNle is formylnorleucine) [11].
  • Proteolytic enzymes released from granulocytes upon stimulation with the chemotactic N-formyl peptide FNLPNTL (in the presence of cytochalasin B) prevented activation of tumor cell single-chain urokinase-type plasminogen activator (pro-uPA) by plasmin [12].
  • Cord blood PMN chemotactic response to F-peptide was normal, while the response to EAS was decreased (57%) [13].
  • Results obtained with lectin histochemistry in combination with beta-elimination reaction and endoglucosaminidase F/peptide N-glycosidase F digestion suggest that glycoproteins of mature acrosomes contain both N- and O-linked oligosaccharides [14].
  • The number of receptor sites for F-peptide on the membranes of cord blood PMN was also found to be normal (120,000 receptors/cell) [13].

Associations of Fnle-leu-phe-nle-tyr-lys with other chemical compounds


Gene context of Fnle-leu-phe-nle-tyr-lys

  • By using cells transfected with cDNAs encoding receptors that interact with fMLF, we found that F peptide uses an fMLF receptor variant, FPRL1, as a functional receptor [8].
  • Complement factor D caused a dose-dependent decrease of the FNLPNTL-stimulated lactoferrin degranulation down to 34% of stimulated controls [16].
  • When human granulocytes were stimulated with the chemotactic peptide FNLPNTL (N-formyl-norleucyl-leucyl-phenylalanyl-norleucyl-tyrosinyl- lysin; in the presence of cytochalasin B), proteolytic enzymes were released which prevented activation of tumor-cell derived pro-uPA by plasmin [17].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Fnle-leu-phe-nle-tyr-lys

  • The lactacin F peptide retained activity after extraction from SDS-PAGE gel slices, confirming the identity of the 2.5-kDa peptide [18].


  1. Inhibition of hendra virus fusion. Porotto, M., Doctor, L., Carta, P., Fornabaio, M., Greengard, O., Kellogg, G.E., Moscona, A. J. Virol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  2. Expression of functional formyl peptide receptors by human astrocytoma cell lines. Le, Y., Hu, J., Gong, W., Shen, W., Li, B., Dunlop, N.M., Halverson, D.O., Blair, D.G., Wang, J.M. J. Neuroimmunol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  3. Pseudomonas aeruginosa outer-membrane protein F epitopes are highly immunogenic in mice when expressed on a plant virus. Brennan, F.R., Jones, T.D., Gilleland, L.B., Bellaby, T., Xu, F., North, P.C., Thompson, A., Staczek, J., Lin, T., Johnson, J.E., Hamilton, W.D., Gilleland, H.E. Microbiology (Reading, Engl.) (1999) [Pubmed]
  4. Neutrophil dysfunction in end-stage renal failure: reduced response to priming by C5a. Dobos, G.J., Traynor-Kaplan, A.E., Ward, D., Schollmeyer, P.J. The Clinical investigator. (1994) [Pubmed]
  5. Receptor-mediated internalization of fluorescent chemotactic peptide by human neutrophils. Niedel, J.E., Kahane, I., Cuatrecasas, P. Science (1979) [Pubmed]
  6. Regulation of heterogenous nuclear ribonucleoprotein A1 transport by phosphorylation in cells stressed by osmotic shock. Allemand, E., Guil, S., Myers, M., Moscat, J., Cáceres, J.F., Krainer, A.R. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2005) [Pubmed]
  7. Activation of the formyl peptide receptor by the HIV-derived peptide T-20 suppresses interleukin-12 p70 production by human monocytes. Braun, M.C., Wang, J.M., Lahey, E., Rabin, R.L., Kelsall, B.L. Blood (2001) [Pubmed]
  8. A synthetic peptide derived from human immunodeficiency virus type 1 gp120 downregulates the expression and function of chemokine receptors CCR5 and CXCR4 in monocytes by activating the 7-transmembrane G-protein-coupled receptor FPRL1/LXA4R. Deng, X., Ueda, H., Su, S.B., Gong, W., Dunlop, N.M., Gao, J.L., Murphy, P.M., Wang, J.M. Blood (1999) [Pubmed]
  9. Significance of the extracellular domain and the carbohydrates of the human neutrophil N-formyl peptide chemotactic receptor for the signal transduction by the receptor. Remes, J.J., Petäjä-Repo, U.E., Tuukkanen, K.J., Rajaniemi, H.J. Exp. Cell Res. (1993) [Pubmed]
  10. Signal processing times in neutrophil activation: dependence on ligand concentration and the relative phase of metabolic oscillations. Albrecht, E., Kindzelskii, A.L., Petty, H.R. Biophys. Chem. (2003) [Pubmed]
  11. Molecular cloning of the fMet-Leu-Phe receptor from neutrophils. Thomas, K.M., Pyun, H.Y., Navarro, J. J. Biol. Chem. (1990) [Pubmed]
  12. Elastase released from human granulocytes stimulated with N-formyl-chemotactic peptide prevents activation of tumor cell prourokinase (pro-uPA). Schmitt, M., Kanayama, N., Henschen, A., Hollrieder, A., Hafter, R., Gulba, D., Jänicke, F., Graeff, H. FEBS Lett. (1989) [Pubmed]
  13. Cord blood polymorphonuclear leukocyte chemotaxis. Differential response to formyl peptide and endotoxin-activated serum. Stark, B., Kahane, I. Isr. J. Med. Sci. (1983) [Pubmed]
  14. Cytochemical characterization of glycoproteins in the developing acrosome of rats. An ultrastructural study using lectin histochemistry, enzymes and chemical deglycosylation. Martínez-Menárguez, J.A., Ballesta, J., Avilés, M., Castells, M.T., Madrid, J.F. Histochemistry (1992) [Pubmed]
  15. Reduced expression of surface receptors for synthetic N-formylated chemotactic oligopeptides by stimulated peripheral blood neutrophils in psoriasis. Glinski, W., Anhalt, T., Mansbridge, J.N. J. Invest. Dermatol. (1987) [Pubmed]
  16. Inhibition of degranulation of human polymorphonuclear leukocytes by complement factor D. Balke, N., Holtkamp, U., Hörl, W.H., Tschesche, H. FEBS Lett. (1995) [Pubmed]
  17. Human tumor cell urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA): degradation of the proenzyme form (pro-uPA) by granulocyte elastase prevents subsequent activation by plasmin. Schmitt, M., Kanayama, N., Jänicke, F., Hafter, R., Graeff, H. Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. (1991) [Pubmed]
  18. Purification and partial characterization of lactacin F, a bacteriocin produced by Lactobacillus acidophilus 11088. Muriana, P.M., Klaenhammer, T.R. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. (1991) [Pubmed]
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