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Chemical Compound Review

CHEMBL570071     4-methoxy-N-[2-[1-(1- piperidyl)propan-2...

Synonyms: DB01228, AC1L2J8O, (+)-isomer encainide
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Disease relevance of Enkaid


High impact information on Enkaid


Chemical compound and disease context of Enkaid


Biological context of Enkaid


Anatomical context of Enkaid


Associations of Enkaid with other chemical compounds


Gene context of Enkaid

  • Encainide suppresses atrial fibrillation resulting from topical application of aconitine in the anesthetized dog and ventricular fibrillation induced by chloroform asphyxiation in the mouse [23].
  • However, despite the fact that the changes in atrioventricular (PR) and intraventricular (QRS) conduction times produced by encainide were different in extensive and poor metabolizer subjects and correlated with CYP2D6 activity, the electrocardiographic response was never 100% specific and sensitive for the identification of either phenotype [24].
  • To assess whether decreased sodium channel activity contributes to sudden death in vivo, the response to encainide (20 mg/kg) was assessed: 6 of 10 young CN mice died because of asystole, whereas 0 of 10 wild-type mice died (P < 0.01) [25].
  • Angina pectoris with encainide in dilated cardiomyopathy [26].
  • Furthermore, the Cardiac Arrhythmia Pilot Study compared moricizine in postinfarction patients with encainide and flecainide [27].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Enkaid


  1. Suppression of ventricular arrhythmias by encainide. Graboys, T.B. N. Engl. J. Med. (1980) [Pubmed]
  2. Mortality and morbidity in patients receiving encainide, flecainide, or placebo. The Cardiac Arrhythmia Suppression Trial. Echt, D.S., Liebson, P.R., Mitchell, L.B., Peters, R.W., Obias-Manno, D., Barker, A.H., Arensberg, D., Baker, A., Friedman, L., Greene, H.L. N. Engl. J. Med. (1991) [Pubmed]
  3. Inefficacy and proarrhythmic effects of flecainide and encainide for sustained ventricular tachycardia and ventricular fibrillation. Herre, J.M., Titus, C., Oeff, M., Eldar, M., Franz, M.R., Griffin, J.C., Scheinman, M.M. Ann. Intern. Med. (1990) [Pubmed]
  4. Clinical efficacy and electrophysiologic effects of encainide in patients with Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome. Prystowsky, E.N., Klein, G.J., Rinkenberger, R.L., Heger, J.J., Naccarelli, G.V., Zipes, D.P. Circulation (1984) [Pubmed]
  5. Comparative hemodynamic effects of procainamide, tocainide, and encainide in severe chronic heart failure. Gottlieb, S.S., Kukin, M.L., Medina, N., Yushak, M., Packer, M. Circulation (1990) [Pubmed]
  6. Antiarrhythmic efficacy, clinical electrophysiology, and pharmacokinetics of 3-methoxy-O-desmethyl encainide (MODE) in patients with inducible ventricular tachycardia or fibrillation. Roden, D.M., Lee, J.T., Woosley, R.L., Echt, D.S. Circulation (1989) [Pubmed]
  7. Antiarrhythmic activity, electrocardiographic effects and pharmacokinetics of the encainide metabolites O-desmethyl encainide and 3-methoxy-O-desmethyl encainide in man. Barbey, J.T., Thompson, K.A., Echt, D.S., Woosley, R.L., Roden, D.M. Circulation (1988) [Pubmed]
  8. Comparative study of encainide and quinidine in the treatment of ventricular arrhythmias. Morganroth, J., Somberg, J.C., Pool, P.E., Hsu, P.H., Lee, I.K., Durkee, J., Salerno, D.M. J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. (1986) [Pubmed]
  9. Comparative study of encainide and disopyramide in chronic ventricular arrhythmias: a double-blind placebo-controlled crossover study. Caron, J.F., Libersa, C.C., Kher, A.R., Kacet, S., Wanszelbaum, H., Dupuis, B.A., Poirier, J.M., Lekieffre, J.P. J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. (1985) [Pubmed]
  10. Treatment of atrioventricular node reentrant tachycardia with encainide: reversal of drug effect with isoproterenol. Niazi, I., Naccarelli, G., Dougherty, A., Rinkenberger, R., Tchou, P., Akhtar, M. J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. (1989) [Pubmed]
  11. Suppression of incessant supraventricular tachycardia by intravenous and oral encainide. Brugada, P., Abdollah, H., Wellens, H.J. J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. (1984) [Pubmed]
  12. Antifibrillatory efficacy of encainide, loracainide and ORG 6001 compared with lignocaine in isolated hearts of rabbits and guinea-pigs. Almotrefi, A.A., Baker, J.B. Br. J. Pharmacol. (1981) [Pubmed]
  13. Clinical pharmacology and antiarrhythmic efficacy of encainide in patients with chronic ventricular arrhythmias. Winkle, R.A., Peters, F., Kates, R.E., Tucker, C., Harrison, D.C. Circulation (1981) [Pubmed]
  14. Treatment of frequent ventricular arrhythmia with encainide: assessment using serial ambulatory electrocardiograms, intracardiac electrophysiologic studies, treadmill exercise tests, and radionuclide cineangiographic studies. DiBianco, R., Fletcher, R.D., Cohen, A.I., Gottdiener, J.S., Singh, S.N., Katz, R.J., Bates, H.R., Sauerbrunn, B. Circulation (1982) [Pubmed]
  15. Pharmacogenetics and encainide. Vesell, E.S. Hepatology (1985) [Pubmed]
  16. Electrophysiologic and clinical effects of oral encainide in paroxysmal atrioventricular node reentrant tachycardia. Chimienti, M., Li Bergolis, M., Moizi, M., Salerno, J.A. J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. (1989) [Pubmed]
  17. Genetically determined stereoselective excretion of encainide in humans and electrophysiologic effects of its enantiomers in canine cardiac Purkinje fibers. Turgeon, J., Funck-Brentano, C., Gray, H.T., Pavlou, H.N., Prakash, C., Blair, I.A., Roden, D.M. Clin. Pharmacol. Ther. (1991) [Pubmed]
  18. Differential block of cardiac delayed rectifier current by class Ic antiarrhythmic drugs: evidence for open channel block and unblock. Follmer, C.H., Cullinan, C.A., Colatsky, T.J. Cardiovasc. Res. (1992) [Pubmed]
  19. Depression of maximum rate of depolarization of guinea-pig ventricular action potentials by metabolites of encainide. Hemsworth, P.D., Campbell, T.J. Br. J. Pharmacol. (1989) [Pubmed]
  20. The effect of diltiazem on the disposition of encainide and its active metabolites. Kazierad, D.J., Lalonde, R.L., Hoon, T.J., Mirvis, D.M., Bottorff, M.B. Clin. Pharmacol. Ther. (1989) [Pubmed]
  21. Clinical implications of variable antiarrhythmic drug metabolism. Buchert, E., Woosley, R.L. Pharmacogenetics (1992) [Pubmed]
  22. Clinical pharmacokinetics of encainide. Roden, D.M., Woosley, R.L. Clinical pharmacokinetics. (1988) [Pubmed]
  23. Electrophysiology, hemodynamic and arrhythmia efficacy model studies on encainide. Gomoll, A.W., Byrne, J.E., Antonaccio, M.J. Am. J. Cardiol. (1986) [Pubmed]
  24. Polymorphism of dextromethorphan metabolism: relationships between phenotype, genotype and response to the administration of encainide in humans. Funck-Brentano, C., Thomas, G., Jacqz-Aigrain, E., Poirier, J.M., Simon, T., Béréziat, G., Jaillon, P. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. (1992) [Pubmed]
  25. Decrease in density of INa is in the common final pathway to heart block in murine hearts overexpressing calcineurin. Guo, J., Zhan, S., Somers, J., Westenbroek, R.E., Catterall, W.A., Roach, D.E., Sheldon, R.S., Lees-Miller, J.P., Li, P., Shimoni, Y., Duff, H.J. Am. J. Physiol. Heart Circ. Physiol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  26. Angina pectoris with encainide in dilated cardiomyopathy. Barron, J.T., Billhardt, R.A. Am. Heart J. (1989) [Pubmed]
  27. Comparisons of efficacy and tolerance of moricizine with other antiarrhythmic agents in the treatment of chronic ventricular arrhythmias. Anderson, J.L. Am. J. Cardiol. (1990) [Pubmed]
  28. Drug therapy. Encainide. Woosley, R.L., Wood, A.J., Roden, D.M. N. Engl. J. Med. (1988) [Pubmed]
  29. Adverse hemodynamic and clinical effects of encainide in severe chronic heart failure. Gottlieb, S.S., Kukin, M.L., Yushak, M., Medina, N., Packer, M. Ann. Intern. Med. (1989) [Pubmed]
  30. Electrophysiologic actions of O-demethyl encainide: an active metabolite. Duff, H.J., Dawson, A.K., Roden, D.M., Oates, J.A., Smith, R.F., Woosley, R.L. Circulation (1983) [Pubmed]
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