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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)
MeSH Review


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Disease relevance of Mortality


Psychiatry related information on Mortality

  • The available information on the world distribution of Huntington's disease (HD) from population surveys and death rate analysis is summarised and discussed in the light of genetic studies [6].
  • Lithium has demonstrated possibly specific antisuicidal effects apart from its prophylactic efficacy: it significantly reduces the high excess mortality of patients with affective disorders [7].
  • Heavy ED users had elevated mortality in all diagnoses, the most important excess mortality being from violent death, comprising suicide, probable suicide and alcohol/drug abuse, with an SMR of 6.3 (95 per cent CI = 6.0-6.7) [8].
  • The finding of a geographical correlation between death rates from dementia and water aluminium concentrations in Norway has since been replicated in several other surveys [9].
  • Indoor feeding behaviors and mortalities of Anopheles pseudopunctipennis females were evaluated following contact with selective (bands covering mosquitoes' preferred resting areas) and full applications of DDT and bendiocarb on indoor sprayable surfaces [10].

High impact information on Mortality

  • In analyses by race and ethnicity, African American men and women have 40% and 18% higher death rates from all cancers combined than White men and women, respectively [11].
  • RESULTS: Among the various subgroups, the standardized mortality ratio for the patients on dialysis who were awaiting transplantation (annual death rate, 6.3 per 100 patient-years) was 38 to 58 percent lower than that for all patients on dialysis (annual death rate, 16.1 per 100 patient-years) [12].
  • The use of encainide and flecainide was discontinued because of excess mortality [13].
  • This lack of a late effect could not be attributed to differential mortality, low phenytoin levels, or treatment of some early seizures in patients assigned to the placebo group [14].
  • During the third interim analysis, the death rate at the 21st day was identical in the two groups (dexamethasone vs. placebo, 21 of 46 vs. 21 of 47; chi-square = 0.01, P = 0.93) [15].

Chemical compound and disease context of Mortality


Biological context of Mortality


Anatomical context of Mortality

  • In CD4(+) T cells, mean proliferation and death rates were elevated by 6.3- and 2.9-fold, respectively, in infected patients compared with normal controls [26].
  • Photoreceptor death rates were assessed with the TUNEL technique for detection of fragmenting DNA, in a developmental series from postnatal day (P)16 to P105 (adult) [27].
  • We show that collicular injections of either kainic acid or BDNF and NT-4/5 blocking antibodies significantly increased retinal ganglion cell death in the neonatal rat 24 h postinjection, death rates returning to normal by 48 h [28].
  • They also suffered excess mortality below age 60 for cancers of reproductive sites (cervix, ovary and endometrium; 15 deaths; SMR = 2.6) and lung (11 deaths; SMR = 3.2), but not for other sites (12 deaths; SMR = 0.9) [29].
  • The severity of Aleutian disease (AD) was judged by the serum gammaglobulin level, the quantity of peripheral blood CD8 lymphocytes, antibody titers to VP1/2 and NS1 proteins and mink death rates [30].

Associations of Mortality with chemical compounds

  • Prednisolone decreased serum bilirubin (P < 0.05) and globulin (P < 0.01) at three months; it delayed other biochemical remission occurring after the second month of medication (P < 0.001); it hastened biochemical relapse (P < 0.0001); and it increased the frequency of complications (P < 0.0001) and the death rate (P < 0.01) [31].
  • Adjustment for these differences with two separate applications of the Cox method yielded P values of 0.14 and 0.34 for tests of difference in mortality, providing no evidence for a significant excess mortality associated with digoxin [32].
  • Mortality among those withdrawn was high (22 per cent), and their exclusion reduced death rates to 4 per cent in those given tranexamic acid, 8 per cent in those given cimetidine, and 11 per cent in those given placebo (P = 0.0072 for tranexamic acid vs. placebo, P greater than 0.50 for cimetidine vs. placebo) [33].
  • A serum aspartate aminotransferase level greater than or equal to 150 IU per liter at the time of hospital admission was associated with a case-fatality rate of 55 percent (33 of 60) [34].
  • Patients with this risk factor who were treated with intravenous ribavirin within the first six days after onset of fever had a case-fatality rate of 9 percent (1 of 11) (P = 0.006), whereas those treated after seven days or more of illness had a fatality rate of 47 percent (9 of 19) (P = 0.035) [34].

Gene context of Mortality

  • Prevention of UV-induced CD95 clustering by irradiating cells at 10 degrees C was associated with a significantly reduced death rate [35].
  • Stage-adjusted recurrence and death rates were nonsignificantly better for BRCA2 cases (hazard ratios of 0.84 and 0.59 [P =.61 and P =.19], respectively) [36].
  • However, after 48 h, the CD95/CD95L expression pattern switched back to CD95-/CD95L+ and the specific death rate decreased [37].
  • Mutants lacking major covalently bound proteins, either all four described Pir-proteins or the five most abundant glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored proteins (Ccw12p, Ccw13p/Dan1p, Ccw14p/Icwp1p, Tip1p and Cwp1p), also had increased mortalities, the first somewhat more and the latter less than that of scw4scw10bgl2 [38].
  • Both recurrence and death rates were significantly associated with low levels of ER and PR (p < 0.01) [39].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Mortality


  1. Development of mice expressing a single D-type cyclin. Ciemerych, M.A., Kenney, A.M., Sicinska, E., Kalaszczynska, I., Bronson, R.T., Rowitch, D.H., Gardner, H., Sicinski, P. Genes Dev. (2002) [Pubmed]
  2. Protection from Alzheimer's-like disease in the mouse by genetic ablation of inducible nitric oxide synthase. Nathan, C., Calingasan, N., Nezezon, J., Ding, A., Lucia, M.S., La Perle, K., Fuortes, M., Lin, M., Ehrt, S., Kwon, N.S., Chen, J., Vodovotz, Y., Kipiani, K., Beal, M.F. J. Exp. Med. (2005) [Pubmed]
  3. Comparison of prognostic factors and survival among black patients and white patients treated with irradiation for non-small-cell lung cancer. Graham, M.V., Geitz, L.M., Byhardt, R., Asbell, S., Roach, M., Urtasun, R.C., Curran, W.J., Lattin, P., Russell, A.H., Cox, J.D. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1992) [Pubmed]
  4. Coronary heart disease mortality and adjuvant tamoxifen therapy. Costantino, J.P., Kuller, L.H., Ives, D.G., Fisher, B., Dignam, J. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1997) [Pubmed]
  5. ABO blood-group incidence and death-rates from ischaemic heart-disease. Allan, T.M. Lancet (1977) [Pubmed]
  6. The epidemiology of Huntington's disease. Harper, P.S. Hum. Genet. (1992) [Pubmed]
  7. The antisuicidal and mortality-reducing effect of lithium prophylaxis: consequences for guidelines in clinical psychiatry. Müller-Oerlinghausen, B., Berghöfer, A., Ahrens, B. Canadian journal of psychiatry. Revue canadienne de psychiatrie. (2003) [Pubmed]
  8. Frequency of emergency department attendances as a predictor of mortality: nine-year follow-up of a population-based cohort. Hansagi, H., Allebeck, P., Edhag, O., Magnusson, G. Journal of public health medicine. (1990) [Pubmed]
  9. The epidemiology of Alzheimer's disease in relation to aluminium. Martyn, C.N. Ciba Found. Symp. (1992) [Pubmed]
  10. Selective and conventional house-spraying of DDT and bendiocarb against Anopheles pseudopunctipennis in southern Mexico. Casas, M., Torres, J.L., Bown, D.N., Rodríguez, M.H., Arredondo-Jiménez, J.I. J. Am. Mosq. Control Assoc. (1998) [Pubmed]
  11. Cancer statistics, 2006. Jemal, A., Siegel, R., Ward, E., Murray, T., Xu, J., Smigal, C., Thun, M.J. CA: a cancer journal for clinicians. (2006) [Pubmed]
  12. Comparison of mortality in all patients on dialysis, patients on dialysis awaiting transplantation, and recipients of a first cadaveric transplant. Wolfe, R.A., Ashby, V.B., Milford, E.L., Ojo, A.O., Ettenger, R.E., Agodoa, L.Y., Held, P.J., Port, F.K. N. Engl. J. Med. (1999) [Pubmed]
  13. Mortality and morbidity in patients receiving encainide, flecainide, or placebo. The Cardiac Arrhythmia Suppression Trial. Echt, D.S., Liebson, P.R., Mitchell, L.B., Peters, R.W., Obias-Manno, D., Barker, A.H., Arensberg, D., Baker, A., Friedman, L., Greene, H.L. N. Engl. J. Med. (1991) [Pubmed]
  14. A randomized, double-blind study of phenytoin for the prevention of post-traumatic seizures. Temkin, N.R., Dikmen, S.S., Wilensky, A.J., Keihm, J., Chabal, S., Winn, H.R. N. Engl. J. Med. (1990) [Pubmed]
  15. Effects of dexamethasone in primary supratentorial intracerebral hemorrhage. Poungvarin, N., Bhoopat, W., Viriyavejakul, A., Rodprasert, P., Buranasiri, P., Sukondhabhant, S., Hensley, M.J., Strom, B.L. N. Engl. J. Med. (1987) [Pubmed]
  16. Role of adjuvant therapy in surgically resected colorectal carcinoma. Sinicrope, F.A., Sugarman, S.M. Gastroenterology (1995) [Pubmed]
  17. Mianserin and agranulocytosis in New Zealand. Coulter, D.M., Edwards, I.R. Lancet (1990) [Pubmed]
  18. High yield micronodular cirrhosis in the rat. Proctor, E., Chatamra, K. Gastroenterology (1982) [Pubmed]
  19. Declining incidence of ventricular fibrillation in myocardial infarction. Implications for the prophylactic use of lidocaine. Antman, E.M., Berlin, J.A. Circulation (1992) [Pubmed]
  20. Optimized conjugation ratios lead to allergen immunostimulatory oligodeoxynucleotide conjugates with retained immunogenicity and minimal anaphylactogenicity. Horner, A.A., Takabayashi, K., Beck, L., Sharma, B., Zubeldia, J., Baird, S., Tuck, S., Libet, L., Spiegelberg, H.L., Liu, F.T., Raz, E. J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  21. Influences of cardiorespiratory fitness and other precursors on cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality in men and women. Blair, S.N., Kampert, J.B., Kohl, H.W., Barlow, C.E., Macera, C.A., Paffenbarger, R.S., Gibbons, L.W. JAMA (1996) [Pubmed]
  22. The Achilles heel of the University Group Diabetes Program. Kilo, C., Miller, J.P., Williamson, J.R. JAMA (1980) [Pubmed]
  23. Effects of verapamil on the acute toxicity of doxorubicin in vivo. Sridhar, R., Dwivedi, C., Anderson, J., Baker, P.B., Sharma, H.M., Desai, P., Engineer, F.N. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1992) [Pubmed]
  24. Mitosis and apoptosis in the liver of interleukin-6-deficient mice after partial hepatectomy. Sakamoto, T., Liu, Z., Murase, N., Ezure, T., Yokomuro, S., Poli, V., Demetris, A.J. Hepatology (1999) [Pubmed]
  25. Lymphomagenesis, hydronephrosis, and autoantibodies result from dysregulation of IL-9 and are differentially dependent on Th2 cytokines. Lauder, A.J., Jolin, H.E., Smith, P., van den Berg, J.G., Jones, A., Wisden, W., Smith, K.G., Dasvarma, A., Fallon, P.G., McKenzie, A.N. J. Immunol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  26. Increased turnover of T lymphocytes in HIV-1 infection and its reduction by antiretroviral therapy. Mohri, H., Perelson, A.S., Tung, K., Ribeiro, R.M., Ramratnam, B., Markowitz, M., Kost, R., Hurley, A., Weinberger, L., Cesar, D., Hellerstein, M.K., Ho, D.D. J. Exp. Med. (2001) [Pubmed]
  27. Photoreceptor death, trophic factor expression, retinal oxygen status, and photoreceptor function in the P23H rat. Yu, D.Y., Cringle, S., Valter, K., Walsh, N., Lee, D., Stone, J. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (2004) [Pubmed]
  28. Target-derived and locally derived neurotrophins support retinal ganglion cell survival in the neonatal rat retina. Spalding, K.L., Rush, R.A., Harvey, A.R. J. Neurobiol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  29. Cancer mortality in the first degree relatives of young breast cancer patients. Anderson, K.E., Easton, D.F., Matthews, F.E., Peto, J. Br. J. Cancer (1992) [Pubmed]
  30. Vaccination with Aleutian mink disease parvovirus (AMDV) capsid proteins enhances disease, while vaccination with the major non-structural AMDV protein causes partial protection from disease. Aasted, B., Alexandersen, S., Christensen, J. Vaccine (1998) [Pubmed]
  31. Deleterious effect of prednisolone in HBsAg-positive chronic active hepatitis. Lam, K.C., Lai, C.L., Trepo, C., Wu, P.C. N. Engl. J. Med. (1981) [Pubmed]
  32. Digoxin therapy and mortality after myocardial infarction. Experience in the MILIS Study. Muller, J.E., Turi, Z.G., Stone, P.H., Rude, R.E., Raabe, D.S., Jaffe, A.S., Gold, H.K., Gustafson, N., Poole, W.K., Passamani, E. N. Engl. J. Med. (1986) [Pubmed]
  33. Cimetidine and tranexamic acid in the treatment of acute upper-gastrointestinal-tract bleeding. Barer, D., Ogilvie, A., Henry, D., Dronfield, M., Coggon, D., French, S., Ellis, S., Atkinson, M., Langman, M. N. Engl. J. Med. (1983) [Pubmed]
  34. Lassa fever. Effective therapy with ribavirin. McCormick, J.B., King, I.J., Webb, P.A., Scribner, C.L., Craven, R.B., Johnson, K.M., Elliott, L.H., Belmont-Williams, R. N. Engl. J. Med. (1986) [Pubmed]
  35. Ultraviolet light induces apoptosis via direct activation of CD95 (Fas/APO-1) independently of its ligand CD95L. Aragane, Y., Kulms, D., Metze, D., Wilkes, G., Pöppelmann, B., Luger, T.A., Schwarz, T. J. Cell Biol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  36. Survival in hereditary breast cancer associated with germline mutations of BRCA2. Verhoog, L.C., Brekelmans, C.T., Seynaeve, C., Dahmen, G., van Geel, A.N., Bartels, C.C., Tilanus-Linthorst, M.M., Wagner, A., Devilee, P., Halley, D.J., van den Ouweland, A.M., Meijers-Heijboer, E.J., Klijn, J.G. J. Clin. Oncol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  37. Pathologically elevated cyclic hydrostatic pressure induces CD95-mediated apoptotic cell death in vascular endothelial cells. Hasel, C., Dürr, S., Bauer, A., Heydrich, R., Brüderlein, S., Tambi, T., Bhanot, U., Möller, P. Am. J. Physiol., Cell Physiol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  38. Increased mortality of Saccharomyces cerevisiae cell wall protein mutants. Teparić, R., Stuparević, I., Mrsa, V. Microbiology (Reading, Engl.) (2004) [Pubmed]
  39. HER-2/neu overexpression and hormone dependency in endometrial cancer: analysis of cohort and review of literature. Mariani, A., Sebo, T.J., Katzmann, J.A., Riehle, D.L., Dowdy, S.C., Keeney, G.L., Lesnick, T.G., Podratz, K.C. Anticancer Res. (2005) [Pubmed]
  40. Vitamin K as a regulator of benzo(a)pyrene metabolism, mutagenesis, and carcinogenesis. Studies with rat microsomes and tumorigenesis in mice. Israels, L.G., Walls, G.A., Ollmann, D.J., Friesen, E., Israels, E.D. J. Clin. Invest. (1983) [Pubmed]
  41. Comparison of three nonsurgical treatments for bleeding esophageal varices. O'Connor, K.W., Lehman, G., Yune, H., Brunelle, R., Christiansen, P., Hast, J., Compton, M., McHenry, R., Klatte, E., Cockerill, E. Gastroenterology (1989) [Pubmed]
  42. Randomized comparison of DAT versus ADE as induction chemotherapy in children and younger adults with acute myeloid leukemia. Results of the Medical Research Council's 10th AML trial (MRC AML10). Adult and Childhood Leukaemia Working Parties of the Medical Research Council. Hann, I.M., Stevens, R.F., Goldstone, A.H., Rees, J.K., Wheatley, K., Gray, R.G., Burnett, A.K. Blood (1997) [Pubmed]
  43. Long-term survival rates of patients with prostate cancer in the prostate-specific antigen screening era: population-based estimates for the year 2000 by period analysis. Brenner, H., Arndt, V. J. Clin. Oncol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  44. The toxicology of hydroquinone--relevance to occupational and environmental exposure. DeCaprio, A.P. Crit. Rev. Toxicol. (1999) [Pubmed]
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