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Chemical Compound Review

Tonocard     2-amino-N-(2,6- dimethylphenyl)propanamide

Synonyms: Taquidil, Tocainida, tocainide, Tocainidum, CHEMBL1762, ...
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Disease relevance of tocainide


Psychiatry related information on tocainide


High impact information on tocainide


Chemical compound and disease context of tocainide


Biological context of tocainide

  • Clinical efficacy and pharmacokinetics of a new orally effective antiarrhythmic, tocainide [4].
  • Tocainide infusion produced small but statistically significant increases in the pulmonary and systemic vascular resistance, aortic and pulmonary arterial pressure, and left and right ventricular end-diastolic pressure [12].
  • In other studies, the stereoisomers of tocainide were shown to have a threefold to fourfold difference in IC50 for inhibition of [3H]BTXB binding [18].
  • The differential extent of inhibition of tocainide metabolism observed after a 15 and 20 mg/kg dose supports the involvement of metabolic processes in the nonlinear elimination kinetics of tocainide [19].
  • The fraction of an intraperitoneal dose excreted in urine as II was estimated by measurement of tocainide released by beta-glucuronidase mediated hydrolysis of urine and by the quantitation of III formed after alkalinization of urine samples [20].

Anatomical context of tocainide


Associations of tocainide with other chemical compounds


Gene context of tocainide


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of tocainide


  1. Aplastic anemia due to tocainide. Gertz, M.A., Garton, J.P., Jennings, W.H. N. Engl. J. Med. (1986) [Pubmed]
  2. Tocainide-associated interstitial pneumonitis. Perlow, G.M., Jain, B.P., Pauker, S.G., Zarren, H.S., Wistran, D.C., Epstein, R.L. Ann. Intern. Med. (1981) [Pubmed]
  3. Long-term tocainide therapy for ventricular arrhythmias. Winkle, R.A., Meffin, P.J., Harrison, D.C. Circulation (1978) [Pubmed]
  4. Clinical efficacy and pharmacokinetics of a new orally effective antiarrhythmic, tocainide. Winkle, R.A., Meffin, P.J., Fitzgerald, J.W., Harrison, D.C. Circulation (1976) [Pubmed]
  5. Short- and long-term therapy with tocainide for malignant ventricular tachyarrhythmias. Hohnloser, S.H., Lange, H.W., Raeder, E.A., Podrid, P.J., Lown, B. Circulation (1986) [Pubmed]
  6. Efficacy of a new oral agent (tocainide) in the acute treatment of refractory ventricular arrhythmias. Ryan, W., Engler, R., LeWinter, M., Karliner, J.S. Am. J. Cardiol. (1979) [Pubmed]
  7. Paranoid psychoses induced by tocainide. Harrison, D.J., Wathen, C.G. British medical journal (Clinical research ed.) (1984) [Pubmed]
  8. Confusion and paranoia associated with oral tocainide. Clarke, C.W., el-Mahdi, E.O. Postgraduate medical journal. (1985) [Pubmed]
  9. Tocainide: a severe adverse reaction. Dunn, J.M., Groth, P.E., DeSimone, A. Drug intelligence & clinical pharmacy. (1988) [Pubmed]
  10. Comparative hemodynamic effects of procainamide, tocainide, and encainide in severe chronic heart failure. Gottlieb, S.S., Kukin, M.L., Medina, N., Yushak, M., Packer, M. Circulation (1990) [Pubmed]
  11. Modification of the frequency- and voltage-dependent effects of quinidine when administered in combination with tocainide in canine Purkinje fibers. Valois, M., Sasyniuk, B.I. Circulation (1987) [Pubmed]
  12. The hemodynamic effects of intravenous tocainide in patients with heart disease. Winkle, R.A., Anderson, J.L., Peters, F., Meffin, P.J., Fowles, R.E., Harrison, D.C. Circulation (1978) [Pubmed]
  13. Tocainide for drug-resistant sustained ventricular tachyarrhythmias. Adhar, G.C., Swerdlow, C.D., Lance, B.L., Clay, D., Bardy, G.H., Greene, H.L. J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. (1988) [Pubmed]
  14. Combination of tocainide and quinidine for better tolerance and additive effects in patients with coronary artery disease. Kim, S.G., Mercando, A.D., Fisher, J.D. J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. (1987) [Pubmed]
  15. Electrophysiologic testing of tocainide and mexiletine for ventricular tachycardia: assessment of the need to test both drugs. Miller, S.M., Martinez, J.J., Deal, B.J., Bauman, J.L., Scagliotti, D., Hariman, R.J., Gallastegui, J.L. Am. Heart J. (1986) [Pubmed]
  16. Prophylaxis against ventricular arrhythmias in suspected acute myocardial infarction: a comparison of tocainide and disopyramide. Allen-Narker, R.A., Roberts, C.J., Marshall, A.J., Jordan, S.C., Barritt, D.W., Goodfellow, R.M. British journal of clinical pharmacology. (1984) [Pubmed]
  17. Antimyotonic therapy with tocainide under ECG control in the myotonic dystrophy of Curschmann-Steinert. Mielke, U., Haass, A., Sen, S., Schmidt, W. J. Neurol. (1985) [Pubmed]
  18. A receptor for type I antiarrhythmic drugs associated with rat cardiac sodium channels. Sheldon, R.S., Cannon, N.J., Duff, H.J. Circ. Res. (1987) [Pubmed]
  19. The effect of phenobarbital and SKF 525A on tocainide pharmacokinetics in the rat. Venkataramanan, R., Axelson, J.E. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. (1980) [Pubmed]
  20. Species differences in the urinary excretion of the novel primary amine conjugate: tocainide carbamoyl O-beta-D-glucuronide. Gipple, K.J., Chan, K.T., Elvin, A.T., Lalka, D., Axelson, J.E. Journal of pharmaceutical sciences. (1982) [Pubmed]
  21. Tocainide-induced reversible agranulocytosis and anemia. Soff, G.A., Kadin, M.E. Arch. Intern. Med. (1987) [Pubmed]
  22. On the kinetics and dynamics of tocainide and its metabolites. Ronfeld, R.A., Wolshin, E.M., Block, A.J. Clin. Pharmacol. Ther. (1982) [Pubmed]
  23. Optimal requirements for high affinity and use-dependent block of skeletal muscle sodium channel by N-benzyl analogs of tocainide-like compounds. De Luca, A., Talon, S., De Bellis, M., Desaphy, J.F., Lentini, G., Corbo, F., Scilimati, A., Franchini, C., Tortorella, V., Camerino, D.C. Mol. Pharmacol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  24. Effects of intrathecal local anesthetics on spinal excitability and on the development of autotomy. Luo, L., Wiesenfeld-Hallin, Z. Pain (1995) [Pubmed]
  25. The skeletal muscle sodium and chloride channel diseases. Hudson, A.J., Ebers, G.C., Bulman, D.E. Brain (1995) [Pubmed]
  26. Tocainide kinetics and metabolism: effects of phenobarbital and substrates of glucuronyl transferase. Elvin, A.T., Lalka, D., Stoeckel, K., du Souich, P., Axelson, J.E., Golden, L.H., McLean, A.J. Clin. Pharmacol. Ther. (1980) [Pubmed]
  27. Block of activated and inactivated sodium channels by class-I antiarrhythmic drugs studied by using the maximum upstroke velocity (Vmax) of action potential in guinea-pig cardiac muscles. Kodama, I., Toyama, J., Takanaka, C., Yamada, K. J. Mol. Cell. Cardiol. (1987) [Pubmed]
  28. Inhibition of leukocyte locomotion by tocainide, a primary amine analog of lidocaine: at study with 111indium-labeled leukocytes and scanning electron microscopy. Stewart, G.J., Knight, L.C., Arbogast, B.W., Stern, H.S. Lab. Invest. (1980) [Pubmed]
  29. Tocainide conjugation in humans: novel biotransformation pathway for a primary amine. Elvin, A.T., Keenaghan, J.B., Byrnes, E.W., Tenthorey, P.A., McMaster, P.D., Takman, B.H., Lalka, D., Manion, C.V., Baer, D.T., Wolshin, E.M., Meyer, M.B., Ronfeld, R.A. Journal of pharmaceutical sciences. (1980) [Pubmed]
  30. Inhibition of human liver cytochrome P-450 1A2 by the class IB antiarrhythmics mexiletine, lidocaine, and tocainide. Wei, X., Dai, R., Zhai, S., Thummel, K.E., Friedman, F.K., Vestal, R.E. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. (1999) [Pubmed]
  31. Reduction of myosin-light-chain phosphorylation and of parvalbumin content in myotonic mouse muscle and its reversal by tocainide. Jockusch, H., Reininghaus, J., Stuhlfauth, I., Zippel, M. Eur. J. Biochem. (1988) [Pubmed]
  32. The effect of histamine-2 receptor antagonists on tocainide pharmacokinetics. North, D.S., Mattern, A.L., Kapil, R.P., Lalonde, R.L. Journal of clinical pharmacology. (1988) [Pubmed]
  33. Drug therapy. Tocainide. Roden, D.M., Woosley, R.L. N. Engl. J. Med. (1986) [Pubmed]
  34. Severe dermatologic reactions reported after treatment with tocainide. Arrowsmith, J.B., Creamer, J.I., Bosco, L. Ann. Intern. Med. (1987) [Pubmed]
  35. Clinical electrophysiologic effects of tocainide. Anderson, J.L., Mason, J.W., Winkle, R.A., Meffin, P.J., Fowles, R.E., Peters, L., Harrison, D.C. Circulation (1978) [Pubmed]
  36. Tocainide and mortality after myocardial infarction: a prospective study in conscious dogs. Vanoli, E., Hull, S.S., Stith, R.D., Adamson, P.B., Foreman, R.D., Schwartz, P.J. J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. (1990) [Pubmed]
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