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Chemical Compound Review

Iridium Radioisotopes     iridium

Synonyms: Iridium-192, Iriditope (TN), Iridium Ir 192, HSDB 7396, AC1L258C, ...
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Disease relevance of iridium

  • RESULTS: The primary end point, a composite of death, myocardial infarction, and the need for repeated revascularization of the target lesion during nine months of follow-up, occurred in 53 patients assigned to placebo (43.8 percent) and 37 patients assigned to iridium-192 (28.2 percent, P=0.02) [1].
  • If the problem of late thrombosis within the stent can be overcome, intracoronary irradiation with iridium-192 may become a useful approach to the treatment of in-stent restenosis [1].
  • Iridium-192 wire for hilar cholangiocarcinoma [2].
  • Aided by suprapubic surgical access, after-loading transperineal iridium-192 wire implantations have been done for prostatic cancer in 16 patients, with major complications in 3 [3].
  • Sixty-two patients with 24 primary advanced, six persistent, 28 locally recurrent, and four metastatic tumors of the head and neck were treated with combined interstitial low-dose iridium-192 radiation therapy, interstitial 915-MHz microwave hyperthermia (IHT), and external-beam radiation therapy [4].

High impact information on iridium


Chemical compound and disease context of iridium


Biological context of iridium


Anatomical context of iridium


Associations of iridium with other chemical compounds

  • With the popularity of afterloading implantations, iridium-192 seeds in plastic ribbons have replaced radium in the United States, although continuous sources, such as iridium wires, are widely used in Europe. The authors analyzed the impact of the use of noncontinuous sources in brachytherapy implants [21].
  • No statistically significant differences in the 5-year actuarial rate of local recurrence were noted between patients boosted with either iodine-125 (3.0%), iridium-192 (3.8%), electrons (5.4%), or photons (0%) [22].
  • The aim of this work was to obtain the dosimetry functions required by the American Association of Physicists in Medicine Task Group 43 for both a low and a high dose-rate iridium-192 brachytherapy source through dose measurements in a water-equivalent phantom [23].
  • The use of the newer radionuclides iodine-125 and samarium-145, with less penetrating gamma ray emissions, might be preferred to iridium-192 from the point of view of bronchial carcinogenesis if definitive treatment of the excision cavity became widespread practice [24].

Gene context of iridium

  • (b) In 90 patients with T1-T2 invasive adenocarcinoma of the rectum, Iridium-192 was carried out after four applications of contact X ray therapy [25].
  • IMBT was performed with an iridium-192 stepping source in pulsed-dose-rate/high-dose-rate (PDR/HDR) afterloading technique [26].
  • From 1970 to 1986, 117 patients with T1 (47) or T2 (70) epidermoid carcinomas of the floor of the mouth (SCC) were treated by iridium-192 implantation (192 Ir) [18].
  • Fourteen patients received both ERT and intraluminal radiotherapy (IRT) using iridium-192 (192Ir) wire passed through a percutaneous, transhepatic catheter (median dose, ERT 23.8 Gy + IRT 40.0 Gy) [27].
  • During the implantation procedure for an iridium-192 boost, three tubes were implanted, enabling the measurement with TLD rods of the dose within the breasts of the phantom and the patients during one fraction of the external x-ray therapy and during the interstitial therapy [28].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of iridium

  • METHODS: Patients with restenosis underwent coronary stenting, as required, and balloon dilation and were then randomly assigned to receive catheter-based irradiation with iridium-192 or placebo [29].
  • Treatment of high bileduct carcinoma by internal radiotherapy with iridium-192 wire [30].
  • METHODS: A retrospective analysis of these patients who were treated either with endoscopic biliary stenting followed by external beam radiotherapy and internal iridium-192 brachytherapy (n = 28) or with stenting alone (control group; n = 28) [31].
  • Radiation dosage average was 5252 rads with two patients receiving iridium-192 implant boosts [32].
  • Pathologic specimens from 250 breasts (245 patients) treated between June 1982 and June 1990 with lumpectomy, immediate (boost) interstitial iridium-192 to 15-20 Gy, and external-beam irradiation to the entire breast to 45-50 Gy were reviewed [33].


  1. Localized intracoronary gamma-radiation therapy to inhibit the recurrence of restenosis after stenting. Leon, M.B., Teirstein, P.S., Moses, J.W., Tripuraneni, P., Lansky, A.J., Jani, S., Wong, S.C., Fish, D., Ellis, S., Holmes, D.R., Kerieakes, D., Kuntz, R.E. N. Engl. J. Med. (2001) [Pubmed]
  2. Iridium-192 wire for hilar cholangiocarcinoma. Benjamin, I.S., McPherson, G.A., Blumgart, L.H. Lancet (1981) [Pubmed]
  3. After-loading transperineal iridium-192 wire implantation of the prostate. Miller, L.S. Radiology. (1979) [Pubmed]
  4. Interstitial thermal radiation therapy: five-year experience with head and neck tumors. Seegenschmiedt, M.H., Sauer, R., Fietkau, R., Iro, H., Chalal, J.A., Brady, L.W. Radiology. (1992) [Pubmed]
  5. Transpapillary iridium-192 wire in the treatment of malignant bile duct obstruction. Levitt, M.D., Laurence, B.H., Cameron, F., Klemp, P.F. Gut (1988) [Pubmed]
  6. Endobronchial brachytherapy with high-dose-rate remote afterloading for recurrent endobronchial lesions. Delclos, M.E., Komaki, R., Morice, R.C., Allen, P.K., Davis, M., Garden, A. Radiology. (1996) [Pubmed]
  7. Attenuation effects of biliary endoprostheses on therapeutic radiation. Mayo-Smith, W.W., Dawson, S.L., Mauceri, T., Mueller, P.R. Radiology. (1996) [Pubmed]
  8. Perioperative implantation of iridium-192 as the boost technique for stage I and II breast cancer: results of a 10-year study of 655 patients. Mansfield, C.M., Komarnicky, L.T., Schwartz, G.F., Rosenberg, A.L., Krishnan, L., Jewell, W.R., Rosato, F.E., Moses, M.L., Barbot, D., Cohn, H.E. Radiology. (1994) [Pubmed]
  9. Transperineal percutaneous iridium-192 interstitial template implant of the prostate: results and complications in 321 patients. Khan, K., Thompson, W., Bush, S., Stidley, C. Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. (1992) [Pubmed]
  10. Stereotactic treatment of brain lesions. Biopsy, interstitial radiotherapy (iridium-192 and iodine-125) and drainage procedures. Mundinger, F., Ostertag, C.B., Birg, W., Weigel, K. Applied neurophysiology. (1980) [Pubmed]
  11. High-dose rate iridium-192 brachytherapy and external beam radiation therapy for prostate cancer with or without androgen ablation. Chiang, P.H., Fang, F.M., Jong, W.C., Yu, T.J., Chuang, Y.C., Wang, H.J. International journal of urology : official journal of the Japanese Urological Association. (2004) [Pubmed]
  12. Episcleral iridium-192 wire therapy for choroidal melanomas. Valcárcel, F., Valverde, S., Cárdenes, H., Cajigal, C., de la Torre, A., Magallón, R., Regueiro, C., Encinas, J.L., Aragón, G. Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. (1994) [Pubmed]
  13. Cytogenetic study of skin fibroblasts in a case of accidental acute irradiation. Mouthuy, M., Dutrillaux, B. Mutat. Res. (1982) [Pubmed]
  14. Combined surgery and brachytherapy in the treatment of some cancers of the bladder (partial cystectomy and interstitial iridium-192). Pernot, M., Hubert, J., Guillemin, F., Six, A., Hoffstetter, S., Peiffert, D., Verhaeghe, J., Luporsi, E. Radiotherapy and oncology : journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology. (1996) [Pubmed]
  15. Radiation effects of iridium-192 implants in the cat brain. Ostertag, C.B., Hossmann, K.A., vd Kerckhoff, W. Nuklearmedizin. (1982) [Pubmed]
  16. An iridium-192 mold for use in treating carcinoma of the soft palate. Keys, D.J., Marks, J.E., Sharma, S.C. Radiology. (1979) [Pubmed]
  17. New technique for treating occlusive and stenosing tumours of the trachea and main bronchi: endobronchial irradiation by high dose iridium-192 combined with laser canalisation. Macha, H.N., Koch, K., Stadler, M., Schumacher, W., Krumhaar, D. Thorax (1987) [Pubmed]
  18. Iridium-192 curietherapy for T1 and T2 epidermoid carcinomas of the floor of mouth. Mazeron, J.J., Grimard, L., Raynal, M., Haddad, E., Piedbois, P., Martin, M., Marinello, G., Nair, R.C., Le Bourgeois, J.P., Pierquin, B. Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. (1990) [Pubmed]
  19. High-dose-rate brachytherapy: dose escalation in three-dimensional miniorgans of the human bronchial wall. Kotsianos, D., Bach, D., Gamarra, F., Haimerl, W., Knüchel, R., Lang, S.M., Pfeifer, K.J., Huber, R.M. Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. (2000) [Pubmed]
  20. Interstitial and external radiotherapy in carcinoma of the soft palate and uvula. Esche, B.A., Haie, C.M., Gerbaulet, A.P., Eschwege, F., Richard, J.M., Chassagne, D. Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. (1988) [Pubmed]
  21. Brachytherapy implants with differently spaced Ir-192 seeds: a dosimetric study. Muller-Runkel, R., Vijayakumar, S. Radiology. (1987) [Pubmed]
  22. The use of iodine-125 seeds as a substitute for iridium-192 seeds in temporary interstitial breast implants. Vicini, F., White, J., Gustafson, G., Matter, R.C., Clarke, D.H., Edmundson, G., Martinez, A. Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. (1993) [Pubmed]
  23. Experimental determination of dosimetry functions of Ir-192 sources. Anctil, J.C., Clark, B.G., Arsenault, C.J. Medical physics. (1998) [Pubmed]
  24. Breast conservation, the problem of treating the excision site effectively: physical criteria for the choice of technique used. Denham, J.W., Hamilton, C.S., Cross, P. Clinical oncology (Royal College of Radiologists (Great Britain)) (1991) [Pubmed]
  25. Interstitial curietherapy in the conservative treatment of anal and rectal cancers. Papillon, J., Montbarbon, J.F., Gerard, J.P., Chassard, J.L., Ardiet, J.M. Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. (1989) [Pubmed]
  26. Feasibility of combined operation and perioperative intensity-modulated brachytherapy of advanced/recurrent malignancies involving the skull base. Strege, R.J., Kovács, G., Maune, S., Holland, D., Niehoff, P., Eichmann, T., Mehdorn, H.M. Strahlentherapie und Onkologie : Organ der Deutschen Röntgengesellschaft ... [et al]. (2005) [Pubmed]
  27. External beam and intraluminal radiotherapy for locally advanced bile duct cancer: role and tolerability. Vallis, K.A., Benjamin, I.S., Munro, A.J., Adam, A., Foster, C.S., Williamson, R.C., Kerr, G.R., Price, P. Radiotherapy and oncology : journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology. (1996) [Pubmed]
  28. In vivo dosimetry with TLD in conservative treatment of breast cancer patients treated with the EORTC protocol 22881. Hamers, H.P., Johansson, K.A., Venselaar, J.L., de Brouwer, P., Hansson, U., Moudi, C. Acta oncologica (Stockholm, Sweden) (1993) [Pubmed]
  29. Catheter-based radiotherapy to inhibit restenosis after coronary stenting. Teirstein, P.S., Massullo, V., Jani, S., Popma, J.J., Mintz, G.S., Russo, R.J., Schatz, R.A., Guarneri, E.M., Steuterman, S., Morris, N.B., Leon, M.B., Tripuraneni, P. N. Engl. J. Med. (1997) [Pubmed]
  30. Treatment of high bileduct carcinoma by internal radiotherapy with iridium-192 wire. Fletcher, M.S., Brinkley, D., Dawson, J.L., Nunnerley, H., Wheeler, P.G., Williams, R. Lancet (1981) [Pubmed]
  31. A retrospective comparison of endoscopic stenting alone with stenting and radiotherapy in non-resectable cholangiocarcinoma. Bowling, T.E., Galbraith, S.M., Hatfield, A.R., Solano, J., Spittle, M.F. Gut (1996) [Pubmed]
  32. Conservative treatment for breast cancer. Complications requiring reconstructive surgery. Bostwick, J., Paletta, C., Hartrampf, C.R. Ann. Surg. (1986) [Pubmed]
  33. Breast cancer with extensive intraductal component: treatment with immediate interstitial boost irradiation. Krishnan, L., Jewell, W.R., Krishnan, E.C., Cherian, R., Lin, F. Radiology. (1992) [Pubmed]
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