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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)
MeSH Review

Palate, Soft

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Disease relevance of Palate, Soft

  • CONCLUSION: Iridium-192 interstitial implant boost combined with external beam radiation therapy is a safe and effective therapy in the management of locally advanced carcinomas of the tonsil and soft palate [1].
  • This article reports the initial results using these novel schedules in squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the tonsillar fossa (TF) and/or soft palate (SP) [2].
  • Manifestations include severe developmental delay, rounded face, sparse hair, ear anomalies, hypertelorism, cleft soft palate, a thin vermilion border of the upper lip, and left renal dysgenesis [3].
  • CONCLUSION: It is suggested that the ipsilateral technique is indicated in patients who had an unilateral tonsillar region or soft palate carcinoma that did not cross midline and have no contralateral neck lymphnode metastasis [4].
  • Chronic nephritis, sensorineural deafness, growth and developmental retardation, hyperkinesis, and cleft soft palate in a 5-year-old boy. A new combination [5]?

Psychiatry related information on Palate, Soft

  • 2. On the first night, the effect of sleep stage on the relationship of retropalatal cross-sectional area (CSA; visualized with a fibre-optic scope) to pharyngeal pressure (PPH) measured at the soft palate during eupnoeic breathing was studied [6].

High impact information on Palate, Soft

  • Some SCC lines, e.g., those derived form tumors of the soft palate epithelium, did not express high levels of K19 message even though normal soft palate keratinocytes expressed high levels of K19 mRNA [7].
  • The rescued palatal fusion in Tgf-beta3-/-/K14-Smad2 mice, however, never proceeded to the junction of primary and secondary palates and the most posterior border of the soft palate, despite phospho-SMAD2 expression in these regions at the same level as in the middle portion of the secondary palate [8].
  • Midline clefting, if present, ranges in severity from a cleft of the soft palate to Pierre-Robin sequence [9].
  • A ratio of FDG uptake in the structure compared with that in the cerebellum (termed metabolic ratio) within and outside of the field of radiation was determined in the adenoids; lingual and palatine tonsils; parotid, submandibular, and sublingual glands; and nasal turbinates, soft palate, and gingiva [10].
  • A Lucite sandwich mold containing Iridium-192 wire for use in the treatment of soft palate carcinoma is described [11].

Chemical compound and disease context of Palate, Soft


Biological context of Palate, Soft

  • We describe the case of a 56-year-old man who was admitted for treatment of a progressive destruction of his hard palate, septum, nasal cartilage, and soft palate that had been caused by chronic cocaine inhalation [13].

Anatomical context of Palate, Soft

  • Wire electrodes were inserted close to the midline of the posterior pharyngeal wall at the level of the soft palate (superior PC), tip of the epiglottis (middle PC), and corniculate tubercle (inferior PC) [14].
  • Definitive radiation treatment for early stage carcinoma of the soft palate and uvula: the indications for iridium 192 implantation [15].
  • RESULTS: Minimum anteroposterior diameter of the pharynx at the level of the soft palate decreased from 6.6 +/- 2.2 mm (SD) in the awake state to 2.7 +/- 1.5 mm (P < 0.05) during propofol anesthesia and increased to 8.43 +/- 2.5 mm (P < 0.05) after nasal CPAP application [16].
  • The responses of 54 neurons to independent sapid stimulation of 4 taste receptor subpopulations associated with: (1) anterior tongue; (2) nasoincisor ducts; (3) soft palate; and (4) foliate papillae were recorded from the nucleus of the solitary tract (NST) of the Rat [17].
  • NeuroD immunoreactivity was detected in a subset of taste bud cells in the circumvallate, foliate, and fungiform papillae and in the soft palate [18].

Associations of Palate, Soft with chemical compounds

  • This is supported by the observed reduction in anteroposterior diameter at the level of the soft palate during propofol anesthesia and the subsequent increase in this measurement during nasal CPAP application [16].
  • Injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or interleukin (IL)-1beta into the soft palate (ISP) of sham-operated rats induced a dose-related febrile response [19].
  • We examined the integrated (MTA) electromyographic activity (EMG) of the hyoepiglotticus (HE) muscle and the soft palate muscles (SPM) during CO2 administration in 6 anaesthetised prone, mouth open dogs [20].
  • The retrograde axonal tracer True blue accumulated in these neurons of rat after application not only in the tongue and soft palate but also in the retroauricular skin [21].
  • This was true for all taste stimuli tested (sucrose, saccharin, sodium chloride, citric acid, quinine sulfate, MSG and PROP), for all three gustatory areas of the mouth (anterior tongue, posterior tongue and soft palate) and for whole-mouth stimulation [22].

Gene context of Palate, Soft

  • The third patient with soft-palate pigmentation and an undiagnosed pulmonary problem had a CEA level of 10.2 ng./ml [23].
  • METHODS AND MATERIALS: Between 1992 and 2000, 44 patients with T1-T2 SCC of the tonsil (n = 36) and soft palate (n = 8) were treated to the primary with brachytherapy alone (37 patients) or after a limited resection (7 patients) [24].
  • METHODS: For 15 T2 tumors of the tonsillar fossa with extension into the soft palate (To) and 15 T3 tumors of the supraglottic larynx (SgL), conventional treatment plans, consisting of lateral parallel opposed beams, were used for irradiation of both the primary tumor (70 Gy) and the elective neck regions (46 Gy) [25].
  • By these methods, physiologic movements of the soft palate, tubal torus, and tubal orifice can be observed and studied and anatomic variations and pathologic abnormalities can be detected [26].
  • Because of the relationship between the anatomic structures of the fossa of Rosenmüller and the levator veli palatini muscle, NPC arising in the fossa can invade the levator muscle, limiting movement or causing paralysis of the ipsilateral soft palate [27].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Palate, Soft


  1. Iridium-192 interstitial implant and external beam radiation therapy in the management of squamous cell carcinomas of the tonsil and soft palate. Behar, R.A., Martin, P.J., Fee, W.E., Goffinet, D.R. Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. (1994) [Pubmed]
  2. Fractionated high-dose-rate and pulsed-dose-rate brachytherapy: first clinical experience in squamous cell carcinoma of the tonsillar fossa and soft palate. Levendag, P.C., Schmitz, P.I., Jansen, P.P., Senan, S., Eijkenboom, W.M., Sipkema, D., Meeuwis, C.A., Kolkman-Deurloo, I.K., Visser, A.G. Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. (1997) [Pubmed]
  3. Trisomy 16p in a liveborn infant and review of trisomy 16p. O'Connor, T.A., Higgins, R.R. Am. J. Med. Genet. (1992) [Pubmed]
  4. Ipsilateral irradiation for carcinomas of tonsillar region and soft palate based on computed tomographic simulation. Kagei, K., Shirato, H., Nishioka, T., Arimoto, T., Hashimoto, S., Kaneko, M., Ohmori, K., Honma, A., Inuyama, Y., Miyasaka, K. Radiotherapy and oncology : journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology. (2000) [Pubmed]
  5. Chronic nephritis, sensorineural deafness, growth and developmental retardation, hyperkinesis, and cleft soft palate in a 5-year-old boy. A new combination? Kawakami, H., Murakami, T., Murano, I., Ushijima, T., Taguchi, T., Hattori, S., Kajii, T. Nephron (1990) [Pubmed]
  6. The effect of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep on upper airway mechanics in normal human subjects. Rowley, J.A., Zahn, B.R., Babcock, M.A., Badr, M.S. J. Physiol. (Lond.) (1998) [Pubmed]
  7. Abnormal expression of retinoic acid receptors and keratin 19 by human oral and epidermal squamous cell carcinoma cell lines. Hu, L., Crowe, D.L., Rheinwald, J.G., Chambon, P., Gudas, L.J. Cancer Res. (1991) [Pubmed]
  8. Overexpression of Smad2 in Tgf-beta3-null mutant mice rescues cleft palate. Cui, X.M., Shiomi, N., Chen, J., Saito, T., Yamamoto, T., Ito, Y., Bringas, P., Chai, Y., Shuler, C.F. Dev. Biol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  9. Clinical and Molecular genetics of Stickler syndrome. Snead, M.P., Yates, J.R. J. Med. Genet. (1999) [Pubmed]
  10. Change induced by radiation therapy in FDG uptake in normal and malignant structures of the head and neck: quantitation with PET. Rege, S.D., Chaiken, L., Hoh, C.K., Choi, Y., Lufkin, R., Anzai, Y., Juillard, G., Maddahi, J., Phelps, M.E., Hawkins, R.A. Radiology. (1993) [Pubmed]
  11. An iridium-192 mold for use in treating carcinoma of the soft palate. Keys, D.J., Marks, J.E., Sharma, S.C. Radiology. (1979) [Pubmed]
  12. Midline necrotizing nasal lesions: analysis of 18 cases emphasizing radiological and serological findings with algorithms for diagnosis and management. Westreich, R.W., Lawson, W. American journal of rhinology. (2004) [Pubmed]
  13. Midfacial osteomyelitis in a chronic cocaine abuser: a case report. Talbott, J.F., Gorti, G.K., Koch, R.J. Ear, nose, & throat journal. (2001) [Pubmed]
  14. Respiratory-related pharyngeal constrictor muscle activity in normal human adults. Kuna, S.T., Smickley, J.S., Vanoye, C.R. Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. (1997) [Pubmed]
  15. Definitive radiation treatment for early stage carcinoma of the soft palate and uvula: the indications for iridium 192 implantation. Mazeron, J.J., Marinello, G., Crook, J., Marin, L., Mahot, P., Raynal, M., Calitchi, E., Peynegre, R., Ganem, G., Faraldi, M. Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. (1987) [Pubmed]
  16. Magnetic resonance imaging of the upper airway. Effects of propofol anesthesia and nasal continuous positive airway pressure in humans. Mathru, M., Esch, O., Lang, J., Herbert, M.E., Chaljub, G., Goodacre, B., vanSonnenberg, E. Anesthesiology (1996) [Pubmed]
  17. Convergence of lingual and palatal gustatory neural activity in the nucleus of the solitary tract. Travers, S.P., Pfaffmann, C., Norgren, R. Brain Res. (1986) [Pubmed]
  18. Expression of NeuroD in the mouse taste buds. Suzuki, Y., Takeda, M., Obara, N. Cell Tissue Res. (2002) [Pubmed]
  19. The glossopharyngeal nerve as a novel pathway in immune-to-brain communication: relevance to neuroimmune surveillance of the oral cavity. Romeo, H.E., Tio, D.L., Rahman, S.U., Chiappelli, F., Taylor, A.N. J. Neuroimmunol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  20. Mechanisms of oronasal airflow partitioning in dogs. Amis, T.C., O'Neill, N., Van der Touw, T., Brancatisano, A. Respiration physiology. (1996) [Pubmed]
  21. Presence of gastrin-releasing peptide in neurons of the geniculate ganglion in rat and man. Hardebo, J.E., Suzuki, N., Ekman, R. Neurosci. Lett. (1992) [Pubmed]
  22. 'Thermal taste' predicts higher responsiveness to chemical taste and flavor. Green, B.G., George, P. Chem. Senses (2004) [Pubmed]
  23. Soft-palate pigmentation in lung disease, including cancer. Merchant, H.W., Hayes, L.E., Ellison, L.T. Oral Surg. Oral Med. Oral Pathol. (1976) [Pubmed]
  24. Exclusive brachytherapy for T1 and T2 squamous cell carcinomas of the velotonsillar area: results in 44 patients. Le Scodan, R., Pommier, P., Ardiet, J.M., Montbarbon, X., Malet, C., Favrel, V., Zrounba, P., Poupart, M., Céruse, P., Ferlay, C., Clippe, S. Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. (2005) [Pubmed]
  25. Beam intensity modulation using tissue compensators or dynamic multileaf collimation in three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy of primary cancers of the oropharynx and larynx, including the elective neck. van Dieren, E.B., Nowak, P.J., Wijers, O.B., van Sörnsen de Koste, J.R., van der Est, H., Binnekamp, D.P., Heijmen, B.J., Levendag, P.C. Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. (2000) [Pubmed]
  26. Flexible endoscopy and radiologic evaluation of the eustachian tube in adults with eustachian tube dysfunction. Gaafar, H., el Deeb, A.K., Abdel-Baki, F., el-Henawi, D. The American journal of otology. (1988) [Pubmed]
  27. Unilateral palate paralysis in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma: imaging and clinical correlations. Su, C.Y., Lui, C.C. Laryngoscope (2001) [Pubmed]
  28. Histological changes in elastic components of soft palate scars after CO2 and contact Nd:YAG laser incisions in the dog as an experimental model. Laranne, J., Matsune, S., Shima, T., Ohyama, M. European archives of oto-rhino-laryngology : official journal of the European Federation of Oto-Rhino-Laryngological Societies (EUFOS) : affiliated with the German Society for Oto-Rhino-Laryngology - Head and Neck Surgery. (1996) [Pubmed]
  29. Pain-relieving effect of local steroid injection in uvulopalatopharyngoplasty. Hirunwiwatkul, P. Journal of the Medical Association of Thailand = Chotmaihet thangphaet. (2001) [Pubmed]
  30. Imbalance between proliferation and apoptosis may be responsible for treatment failure after postoperative radiotherapy in squamous cell carcinoma of the oropharynx. Grabenbauer, G.G., Suckorada, O., Niedobitek, G., Rödel, F., Iro, H., Sauer, R., Rödel, C., Schultze-Mosgau, S., Distel, L. Oral Oncol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  31. Oropharyngeal airway diameter during sedation in children with and without developmental delay. Elwood, T., Hansen, L.D., Seely, J.M. Journal of clinical anesthesia. (2001) [Pubmed]
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