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PDR  -  pigment disorder, reticulate

Homo sapiens

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Disease relevance of PDR

  • Diabetic retinopathy was staged by ophthalmoscopic examination as non-diabetic (NDR), simple (SDR), preproliferative (PPDR), or proliferative (PDR) [1].
  • PURPOSE: To investigate whether proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PDR) is associated with a selective increase in vitreous levels of soluble vascular cell adhesion molecules that mediate leukocyte extravasation and interaction with endothelium during processes of inflammation and neovascularization [2].
  • METHODS: Vitreous from 55 patients undergoing vitrectomy for treatment of PDR complicated by vitreous hemorrhage and/or traction retinal detachment was assayed for the presence of the soluble vascular cell adhesion molecules sICAM-1, sVCAM-1, and sE-selectin using a standard enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) [2].
  • RESULTS: Vitreous levels of sICAM-1, sVCAM-1, and sE-selectin were significantly higher in eyes with PDR than in control cadaveric vitreous, and levels of all three molecules did not relate to the type or duration of diabetes mellitus [2].
  • CONCLUSIONS: The present observations suggest that molecular inflammatory mechanisms may contribute to processes of neovascularization and fibrosis observed in PDR, possibly not as the causative event, but as a result of endothelial, Müller, and retinal pigment epithelial cell activation [2].

Psychiatry related information on PDR

  • OBJECTIVE--To examine the relationships of past and current physical activity to the prevalence of PDR [3].
  • Furthermore, we verified if PDR and PDL groups show a different frequency of dementia [4].

High impact information on PDR

  • We used proportional hazards regression models to examine the relationship of the cumulative average of lipid levels (total, LDL, and HDL cholesterol, total-to-HDL cholesterol ratio, and triglycerides) with development of CSME, hard exudate, DR progression, and development of proliferative DR (PDR) [5].
  • Cohen vs. PDR [6].
  • Endocrine assessments occurred at 3-month intervals during the study RESULTS: Only 1 of 22 eyes from patients treated with octreotide reached high-risk PDR requiring PRP, compared with control patients, in whom 9 of 24 eyes required PRP [7].
  • RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Patients with severe nonproliferative DR (NPDR) or early non-high-risk proliferative DR (PDR) were randomly assigned to conventional diabetes management (control group, 12 patients) or to treatment with maximally tolerated doses of octreotide (200-5,000 microg/day subcutaneously; 11 patients) [7].
  • Current levels of energy expenditure were not related to PDR in either sex [3].

Chemical compound and disease context of PDR


Biological context of PDR

  • PURPOSE: To explore the possible increase of radiation effect in tissues irradiated by pulsed brachytherapy (PDR) for local tissue dose rates between those "averaged over the whole pulse" and the instantaneous high dose rates close to the dwell positions [13].
  • CONCLUSION: Facial-MEP with its exhalation port within the mask and the smallest mask volume demonstrated less rebreathed CO2 and a lower PDR than either the Facial-WS or Total Face masks [14].
  • All pleiotropic (PDR) drug-resistant tumor sublines had decreased membrane potentials (membrane depolarized) compared with their corresponding drug-sensitive parental tumors [15].
  • The PDR Drug Interactions and Side Effects software includes a side effects index that allows either searching of a drug, which produces a list of the drug's side effects, or searching of a specific side effect, which produces a list of drugs associated with that side effect [16].
  • Differential effects of CLDR and PDR brachytherapy on cell cycle progression in a syngeneic rat prostate tumour model [17].

Anatomical context of PDR

  • Sixteen patients suffering from metastases at the thoracic wall were treated with 18 fields (78-798 cm2) and total doses of 40-50 Gy applying two PDR split courses with a pause of 4-6 weeks [18].
  • The basal levels of [Ca2+]i in the PDR sublines were variable compared with those of parental drug-sensitive cell lines [15].
  • RESULTS: Both 15-HETE and 15-HPETE were identified in membranes from eyes of patients with PVR and PDR with HETE values significantly higher (p < 0.05) than HPETE values (HETE/HPETE ratio = 5.2) [19].
  • Specifically it is shown how the PDR principle can be employed in designing a series of genes which should be capable of protecting human blood cells from the retrovirus causing the AIDS disease [20].
  • Ocular autonomic nerve function was assessed in 28 diabetic patients with proliferative retinopathy (PDR) and 61 age- and sex-matched control subjects, by measurement of the pupil cycle time and determination of autonomic denervation hypersensitivity of the iris [21].

Associations of PDR with chemical compounds

  • It has two components: phthalate dioxygenase (PDO), a multimer with one Rieske-type [2Fe-2S] and one mononuclear Fe(II) center per monomer, and a reductase (PDR) that contains flavin mononucleotide (FMN) and a plant-type ferredoxin [2Fe-2S] center [22].
  • IMBT was performed with an iridium-192 stepping source in pulsed-dose-rate/high-dose-rate (PDR/HDR) afterloading technique [23].
  • CONCLUSION: Administration of the stable prostacyclin analogue iloprost significantly increases PDR, indicating improvement in liver function [8].
  • Patients were loaded with Iridium 192 (64 cases) or connected to a Microselectron PDR (15 cases) [24].
  • Incubation of all PDR tumor sublines with CsA or verapamil resulted in the restoration of membrane potentials to that characteristic of the corresponding drug-sensitive parental tumor [15].

Regulatory relationships of PDR

  • Vitreous VEGF-A concentration in the NPDR group was 957pg/ml compared to 239pg/ml in the macula hole (FTMH) control (p<0.0001) and 596pg/ml compared to PDR (p=0.006) [25].

Other interactions of PDR

  • The VEGF level was 2025 +/- 533 pg/ml in PDR and 215 +/- 201 pg/ml in NPDR and that in active DR (2543 +/- 673 pg/ml) was significantly higher than that in inactive DR (395 +/- 188 pg/ml; P =.0098) [26].
  • The expression of cell adhesion molecules, especially ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 in diabetic epiretinal membranes suggests that cell to cell interactions may play a significant role in the development of PDR membranes [27].
  • The PEDF level in proliferative DR (PDR) (0.94 +/- 0.12 microg/ml) was lower than that in nonproliferative DR (NPDR) (2.25 +/- 0.32 microg/ml), and that in active DR (0.85 +/- 0.14 microg/ml) was significantly lower than that in inactive DR (1.59 +/- 0.24 microg/ml; P =.01) [26].
  • This appears to be the initial stage of a MRSA epidemic in Lao PDR [28].
  • The results showed that the genotype frequencies of 804C/A in exon 3 and 252A/G in intron 1 of the LTA gene were not significantly different among patients with NDR, NPDR, and PDR [29].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of PDR

  • Ocular changes in each eye were assessed at a minimum of every 3 months for 15 months or until disease progressed to high-risk PDR requiring laser surgery [7].
  • PURPOSE: To evaluate the role of pulsed-dose-rate interstitial brachytherapy (PDR IBT) in patients with head-and-neck malignancies [30].
  • This is the first intensive and longitudinal study to define the etiologic agents of diarrheal diseases in Lao PDR [31].
  • Feasibility and early results of interstitial intensity-modulated HDR/PDR brachytherapy (IMBT) with/without complementary external-beam radiotherapy and extended surgery in recurrent pelvic colorectal cancer [32].
  • Calculated volumetric blood flow rate, however, was not significantly different from normal in eyes with no retinopathy, BDR, and PDR, and was significantly decreased from normal in patients with PDR who had been treated by panretinal photocoagulation [33].


  1. Abnormal light scattering detected by confocal biomicroscopy at the corneal epithelial basement membrane of subjects with type II diabetes. Morishige, N., Chikama, T.I., Sassa, Y., Nishida, T. Diabetologia (2001) [Pubmed]
  2. Vascular adhesion molecules in vitreous from eyes with proliferative diabetic retinopathy. Limb, G.A., Hickman-Casey, J., Hollifield, R.D., Chignell, A.H. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (1999) [Pubmed]
  3. Physical activity and proliferative retinopathy in people diagnosed with diabetes before age 30 yr. Cruickshanks, K.J., Moss, S.E., Klein, R., Klein, B.E. Diabetes Care (1992) [Pubmed]
  4. Neuropsychological characteristics of parkinsonian patients with lateralized motor impairment. Finali, G., Piccirilli, M., Rizzuto, S. Journal of neural transmission. Parkinson's disease and dementia section. (1995) [Pubmed]
  5. A prospective study of serum lipids and risk of diabetic macular edema in type 1 diabetes. Miljanovic, B., Glynn, R.J., Nathan, D.M., Manson, J.E., Schaumberg, D.A. Diabetes (2004) [Pubmed]
  6. Cohen vs. PDR. Rohde, R.A. Arch. Intern. Med. (2001) [Pubmed]
  7. The efficacy of octreotide in the therapy of severe nonproliferative and early proliferative diabetic retinopathy: a randomized controlled study. Grant, M.B., Mames, R.N., Fitzgerald, C., Hazariwala, K.M., Cooper-DeHoff, R., Caballero, S., Estes, K.S. Diabetes Care (2000) [Pubmed]
  8. Effects of the stable prostacyclin analogue iloprost on the plasma disappearance rate of indocyanine green in human septic shock. Lehmann, C., Taymoorian, K., Wauer, H., Krausch, D., Birnbaum, J., Kox, W.J. Intensive care medicine. (2000) [Pubmed]
  9. Therapeutic efficacy of chloroquine plus sulphadoxine/ pyrimethamine compared with monotherapy with either chloroquine or sulphadoxine/pyrimethamine in uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria in Laos. Schwöbel, B., Jordan, S., Vanisaveth, V., Phetsouvanh, R., Christophel, E.M., Phompida, S., von Sonnenburg, F., Jelinek, T. Trop. Med. Int. Health (2003) [Pubmed]
  10. Comment on: Johnson PDR, et al. Efficacy of an alcohol/chlorhexidine hand hygiene program in a hospital with high rates of nosocomial methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infection. Med J Aust 2005; 183: 509-19. Whitby, R.M., McLaws, M.L. Med. J. Aust. (2006) [Pubmed]
  11. Pyrimethamine-sulfadoxine treatment of uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria in Lao PDR. Mannoor, M.K., Vanisaveth, V., Keokhamphavanh, B., Toma, H., Watanabe, H., Kobayashi, J., Hatabu, T., Taguchi, N., Hongvangthong, B., Phetsouvanh, R., Phompida, S., Kano, S., Sato, Y. Southeast Asian J. Trop. Med. Public Health (2005) [Pubmed]
  12. Ocular and cardiovascular autonomic function in diabetic patients with varying severity of retinopathy. Datta, S., Biswas, N.R., Saxena, R., Deepak, K.K., Menon, V., Garg, S.P., Tandon, R. Indian J. Physiol. Pharmacol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  13. Biological effect of pulsed dose rate brachytherapy with stepping sources if short half-times of repair are present in tissues. Fowler, J.F., Van Limbergen, E.F. Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. (1997) [Pubmed]
  14. Position of exhalation port and mask design affect CO2 rebreathing during noninvasive positive pressure ventilation. Schettino, G.P., Chatmongkolchart, S., Hess, D.R., Kacmarek, R.M. Crit. Care Med. (2003) [Pubmed]
  15. Correction of altered plasma membrane potentials. A possible mechanism of cyclosporin A and verapamil reversal of pleiotropic drug resistance in neoplasia. Vayuvegula, B., Slater, L., Meador, J., Gupta, S. Cancer Chemother. Pharmacol. (1988) [Pubmed]
  16. Drug interactions software programs. Fox, G.N. The Journal of family practice. (1991) [Pubmed]
  17. Differential effects of CLDR and PDR brachytherapy on cell cycle progression in a syngeneic rat prostate tumour model. Harms, W., Weber, K.J., Ehemann, V., Zuna, I., Debus, J., Peschke, P. Int. J. Radiat. Biol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  18. First experiences with superfractionated skin irradiations using large afterloading molds. Fritz, P., Hensley, F.W., Berns, C., Schraube, P., Wannenmacher, M. Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. (1996) [Pubmed]
  19. Detection of eicosanoids in epiretinal membranes of patients suffering from proliferative vitreoretinal diseases. Augustin, A.J., Grus, F.H., Koch, F., Spitznas, M. The British journal of ophthalmology. (1997) [Pubmed]
  20. Applying the PDR principle to AIDS. Sanford, J.C. J. Theor. Biol. (1988) [Pubmed]
  21. Ocular autonomic nerve function in proliferative diabetic retinopathy. Clark, C.V. Eye (London, England) (1988) [Pubmed]
  22. Chemistry of the catalytic conversion of phthalate into its cis-dihydrodiol during the reaction of oxygen with the reduced form of phthalate dioxygenase. Tarasev, M., Ballou, D.P. Biochemistry (2005) [Pubmed]
  23. Feasibility of combined operation and perioperative intensity-modulated brachytherapy of advanced/recurrent malignancies involving the skull base. Strege, R.J., Kovács, G., Maune, S., Holland, D., Niehoff, P., Eichmann, T., Mehdorn, H.M. Strahlentherapie und Onkologie : Organ der Deutschen Röntgengesellschaft ... [et al]. (2005) [Pubmed]
  24. Low-dose intraoperative brachytherapy in soft tissue sarcomas involving neurovascular structure. Llácer, C., Delannes, M., Minsat, M., Stoeckle, E., Votron, L., Martel, P., Bonnevialle, P., Nguyen Bui, B., Chevreau, C., Kantor, G., Daly-Schveitzer, N., Thomas, L. Radiotherapy and oncology : journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology. (2006) [Pubmed]
  25. Vitreous and aqueous concentrations of proangiogenic, antiangiogenic factors and other cytokines in diabetic retinopathy patients with macular edema: Implications for structural differences in macular profiles. Patel, J.I., Tombran-Tink, J., Hykin, P.G., Gregor, Z.J., Cree, I.A. Exp. Eye Res. (2006) [Pubmed]
  26. Unbalanced vitreous levels of pigment epithelium-derived factor and vascular endothelial growth factor in diabetic retinopathy. Ogata, N., Nishikawa, M., Nishimura, T., Mitsuma, Y., Matsumura, M. Am. J. Ophthalmol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  27. Expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) on proliferating vascular endothelial cells in diabetic epiretinal membranes. Tang, S., Le-Ruppert, K.C., Gabel, V.P. The British journal of ophthalmology. (1994) [Pubmed]
  28. Initial stage of hospital contamination with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in Lao People's Democratic Republic. Higa, N., Sithivong, N., Phantouamath, B., Insisiengmay, S., Miyazato, T., Iwanaga, M. J. Hosp. Infect. (2004) [Pubmed]
  29. Relationship between polymorphisms 804C/A and 252A/G of lymphotoxin-alpha gene and -308G/A of tumor necrosis factor alpha gene and diabetic retinopathy in Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Yoshioka, K., Yoshida, T., Takakura, Y., Umekawa, T., Kogure, A., Toda, H., Yoshikawa, T. Metab. Clin. Exp. (2006) [Pubmed]
  30. Role of interstitial PDR brachytherapy in the treatment of oral and oropharyngeal cancer. A single-institute experience of 236 patients. Strnad, V., Melzner, W., Geiger, M., Zenk, J., Waldfahrer, F., Lotter, M., Ott, O., Seeger, A., Iro, H., Sauer, R. Strahlentherapie und Onkologie : Organ der Deutschen Röntgengesellschaft ... [et al]. (2005) [Pubmed]
  31. Etiological study of diarrheal patients in Vientiane, Lao People's Democratic Republic. Yamashiro, T., Nakasone, N., Higa, N., Iwanaga, M., Insisiengmay, S., Phounane, T., Munnalath, K., Sithivong, N., Sisavath, L., Phanthauamath, B., Chomlasak, K., Sisulath, P., Vongsanith, P. J. Clin. Microbiol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  32. Feasibility and early results of interstitial intensity-modulated HDR/PDR brachytherapy (IMBT) with/without complementary external-beam radiotherapy and extended surgery in recurrent pelvic colorectal cancer. Tepel, J., Niehoff, P., Bokelmann, F., Faendrich, F., Kremer, B., Schmid, A., Kovács, G. Strahlentherapie und Onkologie : Organ der Deutschen Röntgengesellschaft ... [et al]. (2005) [Pubmed]
  33. Laser Doppler velocimetry study of retinal circulation in diabetes mellitus. Grunwald, J.E., Riva, C.E., Sinclair, S.H., Brucker, A.J., Petrig, B.L. Arch. Ophthalmol. (1986) [Pubmed]
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