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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)
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Disease relevance of Oropharynx

  • CONCLUSIONS: Thalidomide is an effective treatment for aphthous ulceration of the mouth and oropharynx in patients with HIV infection [1].
  • RESULTS: Severe mucositis of the oropharynx and perianal tissues was intolerable at TPT doses greater than 2.1 mg/m2/d, the recommended dose for phase II studies in leukemia [2].
  • We conclude that HIF-1alpha is overexpressed in the vast majority of patients with squamous cell cancer of the oropharynx and that the degree of expression has predictive and prognostic significance in individuals undergoing curative radiation therapy [3].
  • CONCLUSIONS: High-dose acyclovir therapy does not eliminate persistent EBV infection from the oropharynx of healthy HIV-seropositive individuals and therefore would not necessarily prevent lymphoma development [4].
  • Clinical significance of p53 functional loss in squamous cell carcinoma of the oropharynx [5].

Psychiatry related information on Oropharynx

  • To test this hypothesis, we examined the effect of sleep stage on the relationship of retroglossal cross-sectional area (CSA; visualized with a fiber-optic scope) to pharyngeal pressure measured at the level of the oropharynx during eupneic breathing in subjects without significant sleep-disordered breathing [6].

High impact information on Oropharynx

  • Topical antibiotics (tobramycin, colistin sulfate, and amphotericin B) or a placebo was administered through a nasogastric tube and applied to the oropharynx throughout the period of ventilation [7].
  • Pal enzyme had little or no effect on microorganisms normally found in the human oropharynx, and Pal-resistant pneumococci could not be detected after extensive exposure to the enzyme [8].
  • All patients admitted to the ICU who were thought likely to stay in the unit for at least 5 days and to need intubation for longer than 48 h were enrolled and randomly allocated to groups receiving placebo or SDD (amphotericin, colistin, and tobramycin applied to the oropharynx and enterally); all patients received intravenous cefotaxime for 72 h [9].
  • TP53 inactivation is a major mechanism of HPV-related carcinogenesis in the oral cavity and oropharynx [10].
  • A 59-year-old woman carrying a novel LRP5 missense mutation, Arg154Met, manifested skeletal disease affecting her oropharynx as well as dense bones, showing that exuberant LRP5 effects are not always benign [11].

Chemical compound and disease context of Oropharynx


Biological context of Oropharynx


Anatomical context of Oropharynx

  • PLD-118- and DAMB-treated animals showed a significant dosage-dependent clearance of C. albicans from the tongue, oropharynx, and esophagus in comparison to untreated controls (P </= 0.05, P </= 0.01, P </= 0.001, respectively), while FLC had no significant activity [22].
  • RESULTS: In 27 of 53 patients FDG PET showed focal tracer accumulations corresponding to potential primary tumor sites located in the lungs (n = 12), the palatine tonsil (n = 5), the salivary glands (n = 2), the nasopharynx (n = 1), the oropharynx (n = 3), the maxillary sinus (n = 1), and the larynx (n = 1) [23].
  • Patients with histologically proven tumors of T-stage T2, T3, or T4 and any N-stage originating in the oral cavity, oropharynx, supraglottic larynx, or hypopharynx were eligible [24].
  • Retrograde bacterial colonization from the stomach to oropharynx and trachea occurred more frequently in ranitidine-treated patients compared with sucralfate-treated patients [25].
  • In contrast to the success in eradicating mycoplasmas from the vagina or oropharynx of immunocompetent BALB/c mice with oxytetracycline, no such effect was seen in nude BALB/c mice, indicating the importance of a competent immune system in conjunction with antibiotic treatment for eradication of these organisms [26].

Associations of Oropharynx with chemical compounds

  • OBJECTIVE: To examine the impact of continuous versus intermittent fluconazole therapy on fungal colonization and fluconazole resistance in the oropharynx of HIV-infected patients [27].
  • Epithelial cancers, such as those of the skin, bladder, oropharynx and respiratory tract, have the strongest association with vitamin A. These same cancers are causally associated with exposure to carcinogens such as benzo(alpha)pyrene (BP), a product of combustion found in cigarette smoke and charbroiled meat [28].
  • Oral ciprofloxacin therapy did not promote colonization of the oropharynx by gram-negative bacilli [29].
  • Studies were conducted to determine how local anesthetics (phenol and sodium phenolate and Benzocaine) affect tactile sensitivity thresholds in the oropharynx and on the intact skin of the volar surface of the forearms, ankles, knees, elbows, and dorsum of the hands [30].
  • 6. The findings show that signals from the oropharynx do not mediate the diuretic response to drinking Golytely in man and that a mechanism other than inhibition of AVP release appears to be involved [31].

Gene context of Oropharynx


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Oropharynx


  1. Thalidomide for the treatment of oral aphthous ulcers in patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection. National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases AIDS Clinical Trials Group. Jacobson, J.M., Greenspan, J.S., Spritzler, J., Ketter, N., Fahey, J.L., Jackson, J.B., Fox, L., Chernoff, M., Wu, A.W., MacPhail, L.A., Vasquez, G.J., Wohl, D.A. N. Engl. J. Med. (1997) [Pubmed]
  2. Phase I and pharmacodynamic study of the topoisomerase I-inhibitor topotecan in patients with refractory acute leukemia. Rowinsky, E.K., Adjei, A., Donehower, R.C., Gore, S.D., Jones, R.J., Burke, P.J., Cheng, Y.C., Grochow, L.B., Kaufmann, S.H. J. Clin. Oncol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  3. Expression of hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha: a novel predictive and prognostic parameter in the radiotherapy of oropharyngeal cancer. Aebersold, D.M., Burri, P., Beer, K.T., Laissue, J., Djonov, V., Greiner, R.H., Semenza, G.L. Cancer Res. (2001) [Pubmed]
  4. Epstein-Barr virus infection of HIV-seropositive individuals is transiently suppressed by high-dose acyclovir treatment. Luxton, J.C., Williams, I., Weller, I., Crawford, D.H. AIDS (1993) [Pubmed]
  5. Clinical significance of p53 functional loss in squamous cell carcinoma of the oropharynx. Obata, A., Eura, M., Sasaki, J., Saya, H., Chikamatsu, K., Tada, M., Iggo, R.D., Yumoto, E. Int. J. Cancer (2000) [Pubmed]
  6. Effect of REM sleep on retroglossal cross-sectional area and compliance in normal subjects. Rowley, J.A., Sanders, C.S., Zahn, B.R., Badr, M.S. J. Appl. Physiol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  7. A controlled trial in intensive care units of selective decontamination of the digestive tract with nonabsorbable antibiotics. The French Study Group on Selective Decontamination of the Digestive Tract. Gastinne, H., Wolff, M., Delatour, F., Faurisson, F., Chevret, S. N. Engl. J. Med. (1992) [Pubmed]
  8. Rapid killing of Streptococcus pneumoniae with a bacteriophage cell wall hydrolase. Loeffler, J.M., Nelson, D., Fischetti, V.A. Science (2001) [Pubmed]
  9. Double-blind study of selective decontamination of the digestive tract in intensive care. Hammond, J.M., Potgieter, P.D., Saunders, G.L., Forder, A.A. Lancet (1992) [Pubmed]
  10. Human papillomavirus type 16 and TP53 mutation in oral cancer: matched analysis of the IARC multicenter study. Dai, M., Clifford, G.M., le Calvez, F., Castellsagué, X., Snijders, P.J., Pawlita, M., Herrero, R., Hainaut, P., Franceschi, S. Cancer Res. (2004) [Pubmed]
  11. Oropharyngeal skeletal disease accompanying high bone mass and novel LRP5 mutation. Rickels, M.R., Zhang, X., Mumm, S., Whyte, M.P. J. Bone Miner. Res. (2005) [Pubmed]
  12. Correlation of in vitro fluconazole resistance of Candida isolates in relation to therapy and symptoms of individuals seropositive for human immunodeficiency virus type 1. Cameron, M.L., Schell, W.A., Bruch, S., Bartlett, J.A., Waskin, H.A., Perfect, J.R. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. (1993) [Pubmed]
  13. Impact of orally administered antimicrobial agents on human oropharyngeal and colonic microflora. Nord, C.E., Heimdahl, A. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. (1986) [Pubmed]
  14. Salvage irradiation of oropharynx and mobile tongue about 192 iridium brachytherapy in Centre Alexis Vautrin. Langlois, D., Hoffstetter, S., Malissard, L., Pernot, M., Taghian, A. Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. (1988) [Pubmed]
  15. Prevention of second primary tumours with a second generation retinoid in squamous cell carcinoma of oral cavity and oropharynx: long term follow-up. Bolla, M., Laplanche, A., Lefur, R., Ton Van, J., Domenge, C., Lefebvre, J.L., Luboinski, B. Eur. J. Cancer (1996) [Pubmed]
  16. Ampicillin-resistant Haemophilus in the oropharynx: prevalence in three groups of young, middle-class children. Schwartz, R.H., Rodriguez, W.J., Bryan, C. Pediatrics (1983) [Pubmed]
  17. Longitudinal assessment of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in young children with cystic fibrosis. Burns, J.L., Gibson, R.L., McNamara, S., Yim, D., Emerson, J., Rosenfeld, M., Hiatt, P., McCoy, K., Castile, R., Smith, A.L., Ramsey, B.W. J. Infect. Dis. (2001) [Pubmed]
  18. Prevention of bacterial colonization of the respiratory tract and stomach of mechanically ventilated patients by a novel regimen of selective decontamination in combination with initial systemic cefotaxime. Aerdts, S.J., Clasener, H.A., van Dalen, R., Van Lier, H.J., Vollaard, E.J., Festen, J. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. (1990) [Pubmed]
  19. A simple, rapid, and highly reliable capsule-based 14C urea breath test for diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori infection. Hamlet, A.K., Erlandsson, K.I., Olbe, L., Svennerholm, A.M., Backman, V.E., Pettersson, A.B. Scand. J. Gastroenterol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  20. Changing bacterial ecology during a five-year period of selective intestinal decontamination. Lingnau, W., Berger, J., Javorsky, F., Fille, M., Allerberger, F., Benzer, H. J. Hosp. Infect. (1998) [Pubmed]
  21. Cyclin-dependent kinase-inhibitor 1 (CDKN1A) in the squamous epithelium of the oropharynx: possible implications of molecular biology and compartmentation. Wagner, M., Klussmann, J.P., Fangmann, R., Linder, R., Elewa, M.E., Eidt, S., Rose, V.M., Jungehulsing, M., Schulze, H.J. Anticancer Res. (2001) [Pubmed]
  22. Efficacy of PLD-118, a novel inhibitor of candida isoleucyl-tRNA synthetase, against experimental oropharyngeal and esophageal candidiasis caused by fluconazole-resistant C. albicans. Petraitis, V., Petraitiene, R., Kelaher, A.M., Sarafandi, A.A., Sein, T., Mickiene, D., Bacher, J., Groll, A.H., Walsh, T.J. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. (2004) [Pubmed]
  23. FDG PET detection of unknown primary tumors. Bohuslavizki, K.H., Klutmann, S., Kröger, S., Sonnemann, U., Buchert, R., Werner, J.A., Mester, J., Clausen, M. J. Nucl. Med. (2000) [Pubmed]
  24. Mixed beam radiation therapy for unresectable squamous cell carcinomas of the head and neck: the results of a randomized RTOG study. Griffin, T.W., Davis, R., Laramore, G.E., Maor, M.H., Hendrickson, F.R., Rodriguez-Antunez, A., Davis, L. Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. (1984) [Pubmed]
  25. A comparison of the frequency of stress ulceration and secondary pneumonia in sucralfate- or ranitidine-treated intensive care unit patients. Eddleston, J.M., Vohra, A., Scott, P., Tooth, J.A., Pearson, R.C., McCloy, R.F., Morton, A.K., Doran, B.H. Crit. Care Med. (1991) [Pubmed]
  26. Observations on the antibiotic treatment of experimentally induced mycoplasmal infections in mice. Taylor-Robinson, D., Furr, P.M. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. (2000) [Pubmed]
  27. Oropharyngeal yeast flora and fluconazole resistance in HIV-infected patients receiving long-term continuous versus intermittent fluconazole therapy. Heald, A.E., Cox, G.M., Schell, W.A., Bartlett, J.A., Perfect, J.R. AIDS (1996) [Pubmed]
  28. Tissue vitamin A repletion is impaired by exposure to carcinogen. Edes, T.E., Kwan, S.M., Buckley, C.S., Thornton, W.H. Int. J. Cancer (1992) [Pubmed]
  29. Penetration of ciprofloxacin into saliva and nasal secretions and effect of the drug on the oropharyngeal flora of ill subjects. Piercy, E.A., Bawdon, R.E., Mackowiak, P.A. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. (1989) [Pubmed]
  30. Effects of local anesthetics on tactile sensitivity thresholds for cutaneous and mucous membranes. Weinstein, S. J. Invest. Dermatol. (1977) [Pubmed]
  31. The location of the receptors involved in the human diuretic response to drinking an isotonic electrolyte solution. Crotty, T.B., Gebruers, E.M., Hall, W.J. J. Physiol. (Lond.) (1992) [Pubmed]
  32. Cellular retinol-binding protein in mucosa, in benign and malignant non-squamous cell tumours of the head and neck. Wahlberg, P., Fex, G., Wennerberg, J., Willén, R. Acta Otolaryngol. (1989) [Pubmed]
  33. Role of nitric oxide in carcinogenesis and tumour progression. Lala, P.K., Chakraborty, C. The lancet oncology. (2001) [Pubmed]
  34. Involvement of intact HPV16 E6/E7 gene expression in head and neck cancers with unaltered p53 status and perturbed pRb cell cycle control. Wiest, T., Schwarz, E., Enders, C., Flechtenmacher, C., Bosch, F.X. Oncogene (2002) [Pubmed]
  35. Tumor-associated antigens as possible targets for immune therapy in head and neck cancer: comparative mRNA expression analysis of RAGE and GAGE genes. Götte, K., Usener, D., Riedel, F., Hörmann, K., Schadendorf, D., Eichmüller, S. Acta Otolaryngol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  36. Overexpression of the Wilms' tumor gene WT1 in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. Oji, Y., Inohara, H., Nakazawa, M., Nakano, Y., Akahani, S., Nakatsuka, S., Koga, S., Ikeba, A., Abeno, S., Honjo, Y., Yamamoto, Y., Iwai, S., Yoshida, K., Oka, Y., Ogawa, H., Yoshida, J., Aozasa, K., Kubo, T., Sugiyama, H. Cancer Sci. (2003) [Pubmed]
  37. Late toxicity results of the GORTEC 94-01 randomized trial comparing radiotherapy with concomitant radiochemotherapy for advanced-stage oropharynx carcinoma: comparison of LENT/SOMA, RTOG/EORTC, and NCI-CTC scoring systems. Denis, F., Garaud, P., Bardet, E., Alfonsi, M., Sire, C., Germain, T., Bergerot, P., Rhein, B., Tortochaux, J., Oudinot, P., Calais, G. Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. (2003) [Pubmed]
  38. Prevention of nosocomial lung infection in ventilated patients: use of an antimicrobial pharyngeal nonabsorbable paste. Rodríguez-Roldán, J.M., Altuna-Cuesta, A., López, A., Carrillo, A., Garcia, J., León, J., Martínez-Pellús, A.J. Crit. Care Med. (1990) [Pubmed]
  39. Correlation between initial and early follow-up CT perfusion parameters with endoscopic tumor response in patients with advanced squamous cell carcinomas of the oropharynx treated with organ-preservation therapy. Gandhi, D., Chepeha, D.B., Miller, T., Carlos, R.C., Bradford, C.R., Karamchandani, R., Worden, F., Eisbruch, A., Teknos, T.N., Wolf, G.T., Mukherji, S.K. AJNR. American journal of neuroradiology. (2006) [Pubmed]
  40. Suitability of the upper airway models obtained from MRI studies in simulating drug lung deposition from inhalers. Ehtezazi, T., Southern, K.W., Allanson, D., Jenkinson, I., O'Callaghan, C. Pharm. Res. (2005) [Pubmed]
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