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Gene Review

tyrA  -  bifunctional chorismate mutase/prephenate...

Escherichia coli CFT073

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Disease relevance of tyrA


High impact information on tyrA

  • In this review we compare the principles of allosteric transitions of the complex classical model aspartate transcarbamoylase (ATCase) from Escherichia coli, consisting of 12 polypeptides, and the less complicated chorismate mutase derived from baker's yeast, which functions as a homodimer [5].
  • Topologically rearranged but functional enzymes also emerged from these studies, indicating that multiple connectivities can accommodate a functional CM active site and demonstrating the ability to generate new domain connectivities through protein NRR [6].
  • A common catalytic principle for both PchB functions is also supported by the covariance of the catalytic parameters for the CM and IPL activities and the shared functional requirement for a protonated Glu91 in Q91E variants [7].
  • The binding of tyrosine and NAD+ to chorismate mutase/prephenate dehydrogenase from Escherichia coli K12 and the effects of these ligands on the activity and self-association of the enzyme. Analysis in terms of a model [8].
  • Madicago sativa chalcone isomerase (CI) catalyzes the isomerization of chalcone to flavanone, whereas E. coli chorismate mutase (CM) catalyzes the pericyclic rearrangement of chorismate to prephenate [9].

Chemical compound and disease context of tyrA


Biological context of tyrA

  • Analyses of the DNA sequences of the tyrA genes revealed that tyrA(fbr) contained amino acid substitutions either at Tyr263 or at residues 354 to 357, indicating that these two sites are involved in the feedback inhibition by tyrosine [13].
  • The deduced amino acid sequence of this isozyme was 50% identical to that of a previously isolated plastidic CM, and 41% identical to that of yeast CM [11].
  • The protomer fold resembles the structurally characterized (dimeric) Escherichia coli chorismate mutase domain, but exhibits a new topology, with helix H4 of *MtCM carrying the catalytic site residue missing in the shortened helix H1 [15].
  • The overall fold is similar to the crystal structures of two homologues, YabJ from Bacillus subtilis and YjgF from Escherichia coli, and all three structures are similar to that of chorismate mutase, although there is little sequence homology and no apparent functional connection [16].
  • A strategy for selection by functional complementation in a chorismate mutase-free Escherichia coli background was devised by using a recombinant plasmid derivative of pUC18 carrying a Zymomonas mobilis tyrC insert which encodes cyclohexadienyl dehydrogenase [4].

Anatomical context of tyrA

  • The existence of a cytosolic CM isozyme implies that either a cytosolic pathway (partial or complete) for the biosynthesis of phenylalanine and tyrosine exists, or that prephenate, originating from chorismate in the cytosol, is utilized for the synthesis of metabolites other than these two aromatic amino acids [11].

Associations of tyrA with chemical compounds

  • Enzymes do what is expected (chalcone isomerase versus chorismate mutase) [9].
  • The chorismate mutase reaction is a rare enzyme-catalyzed 3,3-sigmatropic rearrangement of chorismate to prephenate [17].
  • PDT20 retained full PDT activity, lacked CM activity, and was insensitive to feedback inhibition by Phe [18].
  • Chorismate-5,6-epoxide, chorismate-5,6-diol, various adamantane derivatives and 2-hydroxy-phenyl acetate are structural analogues of chorismate that act as competitive inhibitors of both the chorismate mutase and prephenate dehydrogenase activities of the bifunctional enzyme, hydroxyphenylpyruvate synthase [19].
  • Chorismate mutase/prephenate dehydrogenase: protection of the active site(s) against inactivation by iodoacetamide [proceedings] [20].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of tyrA

  • The native molecular mass of B. subtilis chorismate mutase was determined by gel filtration to be approximately 44 kDa, indicative of a homotrimer of the 14.5-kDa subunits as determined by electrospray mass spectrometry [17].
  • To investigate whether the mutation alters the substrate binding process or the catalysis, we have directly determined the thermodynamic parameters of a transition state analogue inhibitor binding to the wild-type chorismate mutase and its Q88E mutant using isothermal titration calorimetry [12].
  • Quantitative evaluation of noncovalent chorismate mutase-inhibitor binding by ESI-MS [21].
  • Southern blot analysis suggests the existence of a single gene of this chorismate mutase type per haploid tomato genome [22].
  • In order to get insights into the feedback regulation by tyrosine of the Escherichia coli chorismate mutase/prephenate dehydrogenase (CM/PDH), which is encoded by the tyrA gene, feedback-inhibition-resistant (fbr) mutants were generated by error-prone PCR [13].


  1. The 2.15 A crystal structure of Mycobacterium tuberculosis chorismate mutase reveals an unexpected gene duplication and suggests a role in host-pathogen interactions. Qamra, R., Prakash, P., Aruna, B., Hasnain, S.E., Mande, S.C. Biochemistry (2006) [Pubmed]
  2. Salicylate biosynthesis in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Purification and characterization of PchB, a novel bifunctional enzyme displaying isochorismate pyruvate-lyase and chorismate mutase activities. Gaille, C., Kast, P., Haas, D. J. Biol. Chem. (2002) [Pubmed]
  3. Structure of the OmpA-like domain of RmpM from Neisseria meningitidis. Grizot, S., Buchanan, S.K. Mol. Microbiol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  4. The aroQ-encoded monofunctional chorismate mutase (CM-F) protein is a periplasmic enzyme in Erwinia herbicola. Xia, T., Song, J., Zhao, G., Aldrich, H., Jensen, R.A. J. Bacteriol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  5. Allosteric regulation of catalytic activity: Escherichia coli aspartate transcarbamoylase versus yeast chorismate mutase. Helmstaedt, K., Krappmann, S., Braus, G.H. Microbiol. Mol. Biol. Rev. (2001) [Pubmed]
  6. Directed evolution of protein enzymes using nonhomologous random recombination. Bittker, J.A., Le, B.V., Liu, J.M., Liu, D.R. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2004) [Pubmed]
  7. Mechanistic insights into the isochorismate pyruvate lyase activity of the catalytically promiscuous PchB from combinatorial mutagenesis and selection. Künzler, D.E., Sasso, S., Gamper, M., Hilvert, D., Kast, P. J. Biol. Chem. (2005) [Pubmed]
  8. The binding of tyrosine and NAD+ to chorismate mutase/prephenate dehydrogenase from Escherichia coli K12 and the effects of these ligands on the activity and self-association of the enzyme. Analysis in terms of a model. Hudson, G.S., Howlett, G.J., Davidson, B.E. J. Biol. Chem. (1983) [Pubmed]
  9. Enzymes do what is expected (chalcone isomerase versus chorismate mutase). Hur, S., Bruice, T.C. J. Am. Chem. Soc. (2003) [Pubmed]
  10. Biochemical and Structural Characterization of the Secreted Chorismate Mutase (Rv1885c) from Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv: an *AroQ Enzyme Not Regulated by the Aromatic Amino Acids. Kim, S.K., Reddy, S.K., Nelson, B.C., Vasquez, G.B., Davis, A., Howard, A.J., Patterson, S., Gilliland, G.L., Ladner, J.E., Reddy, P.T. J. Bacteriol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  11. Cytosolic and plastidic chorismate mutase isozymes from Arabidopsis thaliana: molecular characterization and enzymatic properties. Eberhard, J., Ehrler, T.T., Epple, P., Felix, G., Raesecke, H.R., Amrhein, N., Schmid, J. Plant J. (1996) [Pubmed]
  12. Thermodynamics of a transition state analogue inhibitor binding to Escherichia coli chorismate mutase: probing the charge state of an active site residue and its role in inhibitor binding and catalysis. Lee, A.Y., Zhang, S., Kongsaeree, P., Clardy, J., Ganem, B., Erickson, J.W., Xie, D. Biochemistry (1998) [Pubmed]
  13. Feedback inhibition of chorismate mutase/prephenate dehydrogenase (TyrA) of Escherichia coli: generation and characterization of tyrosine-insensitive mutants. Lütke-Eversloh, T., Stephanopoulos, G. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  14. Chorismate mutase/prephenate dehydratase from Escherichia coli K12. 2. Evidence for identical subunits catalysing the two activities. Gething, M.J., Davidson, B.E. Eur. J. Biochem. (1976) [Pubmed]
  15. 1.6 A crystal structure of the secreted chorismate mutase from Mycobacterium tuberculosis: novel fold topology revealed. Okvist, M., Dey, R., Sasso, S., Grahn, E., Kast, P., Krengel, U. J. Mol. Biol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  16. Solution structure and functional ligand screening of HI0719, a highly conserved protein from bacteria to humans in the YjgF/YER057c/UK114 family. Parsons, L., Bonander, N., Eisenstein, E., Gilson, M., Kairys, V., Orban, J. Biochemistry (2003) [Pubmed]
  17. 13C NMR studies of the enzyme-product complex of Bacillus subtilis chorismate mutase. Rajagopalan, J.S., Taylor, K.M., Jaffe, E.K. Biochemistry (1993) [Pubmed]
  18. Probing the catalytic mechanism of prephenate dehydratase by site-directed mutagenesis of the Escherichia coli P-protein dehydratase domain. Zhang, S., Wilson, D.B., Ganem, B. Biochemistry (2000) [Pubmed]
  19. Partial inactivation of chorismate mutase-prephenate dehydrogenase from Escherichia coli in the presence of analogues of chorismate. Christopherson, R.I. Int. J. Biochem. Cell Biol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  20. Chorismate mutase/prephenate dehydrogenase: protection of the active site(s) against inactivation by iodoacetamide [proceedings]. Heyde, E. Biochem. Soc. Trans. (1979) [Pubmed]
  21. Quantitative evaluation of noncovalent chorismate mutase-inhibitor binding by ESI-MS. Wendt, S., McCombie, G., Daniel, J., Kienhöfer, A., Hilvert, D., Zenobi, R. J. Am. Soc. Mass Spectrom. (2003) [Pubmed]
  22. Isolation of a cDNA from tomato coding for an unregulated, cytosolic chorismate mutase. Eberhard, J., Bischoff, M., Raesecke, H.R., Amrhein, N., Schmid, J. Plant Mol. Biol. (1996) [Pubmed]
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