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Gene Review

FOXN3  -  forkhead box N3

Homo sapiens

Synonyms: C14orf116, CHES1, Checkpoint suppressor 1, Forkhead box protein N3, PRO1635
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Disease relevance of FOXN3

  • On one occasion propranolol (ICI plc, Macclesfield, Ches., UK) was administered intravenously at 0.1 mg/kg body weight at meal feeding [1].
  • Two hundred and forty-seven patients with uterine fibroids were randomized to surgery alone or 3 months' Zoladex (Zeneca, Macclesfield, Ches., UK) followed by surgery [2].

Psychiatry related information on FOXN3


High impact information on FOXN3


Biological context of FOXN3

  • In this report, we find that the carboxyl terminus of CHES1 fused to a heterologous DNA binding domain consistently represses reporter gene transcription in cell lines derived from tumor tissues [9].
  • CHES1 suppression of sensitivity to DNA damage is specific for checkpoint-defective strains, in contrast to DNA repair-defective strains [5].

Anatomical context of FOXN3

  • By replacing calcium chloride by calcium lactate and eliminating the use of CHES in the construction of capsule membranes, we improved the strength and biocompatibility of our capsules, as evidenced by marked improvements in the survival rates of diabetic mice treated with islet transplants enclosed in the new capsules [10].

Associations of FOXN3 with chemical compounds

  • Without much changes in the background conductivity after suppressed, CHES could be used as suppressed conductivity ion chromatography eluent for determination of species unstable in strong alkaline, such as determination of phosphate in heteropoly acid (HPA) samples in AS14 column [11].
  • The aggregation suppressor 2-(cyclohexylamino)ethanesulfonic acid (CHES) proved to be superior with respect to the final renaturation yield, although, in comparison to the more common arginine, it was less efficient in preventing aggregation of rhBMP-2 during refolding [12].
  • The working electrolyte consisted of 4.7 mM sodium chromate, 4.0 mM OFM-OH (tetradecyltrimethylammonium hydroxide), 10 mM CHES [2-(N-cyclohexylamino)ethanesulfonic acid], and 0.1 mM calcium gluconate (pH 9.1) [13].
  • An electrolyte system consisting of 25 mM DDCV, 100 mM zwitterionic CHES (2-[N-cyclohexylamino]ethanesulfonic acid) and 10 mM triethylamine (TEA) was most effective for these runs [14].
  • Imidazoles, Ches and phosphate are thought to participate in a metal center-to-buffer proton transfer pathway, whereas Bicine, Taps, Mops and Mes appear to lack this capacity, so that the rate-limiting proton transfer occurs in a metal center-to-bulk water pathway for these variants [15].

Physical interactions of FOXN3

  • Using a cytoplasmic two-hybrid screening approach, we find that this portion of CHES1 interacts with Ski-interacting protein (SKIP; NCoA-62), which is a transcriptional co-regulator known to associate with repressor complexes [9].

Other interactions of FOXN3

  • Accumulating expression profile data suggest that CHES1 plays a role in tumorigenicity and responses to cancer treatments, though nothing is known regarding the transcriptional function of CHES1 or other FOXN proteins in human cells [9].
  • Two cell lines were found to be homozygous for missense-type base substitutions, i.e., Saos-2 was homoallelic for 1637T-->G in hRAD17; and COLO320DM for 1189G-->A in CHES1, indicating a possible use of these cell lines for further study [16].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of FOXN3

  • Sequence analysis demonstrates that CHES1 is a novel member of the fork head/Winged Helix family of transcription factors [5].
  • Using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), we determined some thermodynamic and structural parameters for a series of amino acid-linked dialkyl lipids containing a glutamic acid-succinate headgroup and di-alkyl chains: C12, C14, C16 and C18 in CHES buffer, pH 10 [17].
  • Using the crystallization results of 192 independent crystallization trials, it was possible to identify a buffer containing 100 mM CHES pH 9.25 that significantly improves its solubility [18].


  1. Influence of propranolol on the acute thermic effect of feeding in man. Morgan, J.B., York, D.A., Wilkin, T.J. Ann. Nutr. Metab. (1986) [Pubmed]
  2. The place of Zoladex in deferred surgery for uterine fibroids. Zoladex Myoma Study Group. Gerris, J., Degueldre, M., Peters, A.A., Romao, F., Stjernquist, M., al-Taher, H. Horm. Res. (1996) [Pubmed]
  3. Social epidemiology of chickenpox in two British national cohorts. Pollock, J.I., Golding, J. Journal of epidemiology and community health. (1993) [Pubmed]
  4. Loss of Sin3/Rpd3 histone deacetylase restores the DNA damage response in checkpoint-deficient strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Scott, K.L., Plon, S.E. Mol. Cell. Biol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  5. Reconstitution of a MEC1-independent checkpoint in yeast by expression of a novel human fork head cDNA. Pati, D., Keller, C., Groudine, M., Plon, S.E. Mol. Cell. Biol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  6. Development of a highly specialized cDNA array for the study and diagnosis of epithelial ovarian cancer. Sawiris, G.P., Sherman-Baust, C.A., Becker, K.G., Cheadle, C., Teichberg, D., Morin, P.J. Cancer Res. (2002) [Pubmed]
  7. Enhanced detection of porphyrins by capillary electrophoresis-laser induced fluorescence. Melanson, J.E., Lucy, C.A. Electrophoresis (2002) [Pubmed]
  8. Factors influencing the choice of buffer in background electrolytes for indirect detection of fast anions by capillary electrophoresis. Doble, P., Macka, M., Haddad, P.R. Electrophoresis (1998) [Pubmed]
  9. CHES1/FOXN3 interacts with Ski-interacting protein and acts as a transcriptional repressor. Scott, K.L., Plon, S.E. Gene (2005) [Pubmed]
  10. Generation of alginate-poly-l-lysine-alginate (APA) biomicrocapsules: the relationship between the membrane strength and the reaction conditions. Ma, X., Vacek, I., Sun, A. Artificial cells, blood substitutes, and immobilization biotechnology. (1994) [Pubmed]
  11. Suppressed anion chromatography using mixed zwitter-ionic and carbonate eluents. Chen, Y., Jing, L., Li, X., Zhu, Y. Journal of chromatography. A. (2006) [Pubmed]
  12. Optimized procedure for renaturation of recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 at high protein concentration. Vallejo, L.F., Rinas, U. Biotechnol. Bioeng. (2004) [Pubmed]
  13. Capillary electrophoretic analysis of inorganic anions in atmospheric hailstone samples. Santoyo, E., García, R., Martínez-Frías, J., López-Vera, F., Vera, S.P. Journal of chromatography. A. (2002) [Pubmed]
  14. Enantiomeric separations of basic pharmaceutical drugs by micellar electrokinetic chromatography using a chiral surfactant, N-dodecoxycarbonylvaline. Peterson, A.G., Ahuja, E.S., Foley, J.P. J. Chromatogr. B, Biomed. Appl. (1996) [Pubmed]
  15. Proton transfer roles of lysine 64 and glutamic acid 64 replacing histidine 64 in the active site of human carbonic anhydrase II. Engstrand, C., Forsman, C., Liang, Z., Lindskog, S. Biochim. Biophys. Acta (1992) [Pubmed]
  16. Determination of the genotype of a panel of human tumor cell lines for the human homologues of yeast cell cycle checkpoint control genes: identification of cell lines carrying homoallelic missense base substitutions. Ejima, Y., Yang, L. Somat. Cell Mol. Genet. (1999) [Pubmed]
  17. Thermodynamic and structural characterization of amino acid-linked dialkyl lipids. Tristram-Nagle, S., Lewis, R.N., Blickenstaff, J.W., Diprima, M., Marques, B.F., McElhaney, R.N., Nagle, J.F., Schneider, J.W. Chem. Phys. Lipids (2005) [Pubmed]
  18. Crystallization Optimum Solubility Screening: using crystallization results to identify the optimal buffer for protein crystal formation. Collins, B., Stevens, R.C., Page, R. Acta Crystallograph. Sect. F Struct. Biol. Cryst. Commun. (2005) [Pubmed]
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