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MeSH Review

Child Development

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Disease relevance of Child Development

  • Toxicity to bilirubin in neonates: infant development during first year in relation to maximum neonatal serum bilirubin concentration [1].
  • We studied the effect of diabetic nephropathy on the course of pregnancy, perinatal outcome, and infant development and determined the influence of pregnancy on maternal hypertension and renal function [2].
  • In a community-based study of 4,309 children with neurodevelopmental disabilities who were referred to the Institute for Child Development, Tel Aviv, Israel, 62 (1.4%) had macrocephaly (head circumference above the ninety-eighth percentile for age), of whom 42 (1%) had macrocephaly not associated with hydrocephalus [3].
  • The neurodevelopmental and cognitive outcome of long-term Intrauterine Growth Restriction (IUGR) has been followed up from pregnancy to school age at the Tel Aviv Child Development Centre [4].

Psychiatry related information on Child Development

  • Maternal cocaine use during pregnancy is associated with medical and life-style characteristics detrimental to fetal and infant development [5].
  • The Bayley Scales of Infant Development were collected at 12 and 24 months, and the Stanford Binet Intelligence Test and the Achenbach Child Behavior Checklist were collected at 36 months of age [6].
  • On one hand, it is unclear whether treatment of ADHD with amphetamine-like stimulant medications for extended periods of time during child development can carry negative consequences, as manifested by an increase in use of illicit drugs, higher incidence of mania, psychosis, or other manifestations of psychopathology [7].
  • Furthermore, by holding to the Freudian theory of child development Anna Freud was forced to limit the scope of child analysis, while Klein's application of Freudian practice has led to new discoveries about the development of the infant psyche [8].
  • The purpose of this study was to determine if the abuse of children was prevalent among middle-class professionals in India. Face-to-face interviews were conducted with a stratified random sample of 319 subjects, in three cities in India, to assess their attitudes toward child rearing and their expectations about child development [9].

High impact information on Child Development


Chemical compound and disease context of Child Development

  • Hair tests greatly improve detection and thus can enhance evaluations of the effects of prenatal cocaine use on fetal and child development [15].
  • The level of serum thyroxine during the first 2 years was positively correlated with the Mental Development Index at 2 years of age (Bayley Scales of Infant Development) and the Verbal IQ at 6 years of age (Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence) [16].
  • In view of the neurotoxic properties of these substances following developmental exposure, we initiated a study on infant development in this remote coastal population [17].
  • This enables the evaluation of nocturnal 6SMT excretion as a prognostic and diagnostic factor for child development [18].
  • Objective: To determine whether exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) or dichlorodiphenyl dichloroethene (DDE), either transplacentally or through breast feeding, affected scores on the Bayley Scales of Infant Development at 6 or 12 months of age [19].

Biological context of Child Development


Anatomical context of Child Development

  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: Forty-seven children treated with SCT for malignant or nonmalignant disorders who had no previous cranial radiation therapy, no central nervous system tumors, and were aged birth to 16 years were administered the Bayley Scales of Infant Development or IQ test before SCT and an intelligence test 1 and 2 years after SCT [25].
  • Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), a 22-carbon long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid of the omega-3 family, is a major structural component of neural membranes and is a particularly important nutrient during infant development [26].

Gene context of Child Development


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Child Development


  1. Toxicity to bilirubin in neonates: infant development during first year in relation to maximum neonatal serum bilirubin concentration. Scheidt, P.C., Mellits, E.D., Hardy, J.B., Drage, J.S., Boggs, T.R. J. Pediatr. (1977) [Pubmed]
  2. Diabetic nephropathy and perinatal outcome. Kitzmiller, J.L., Brown, E.R., Phillippe, M., Stark, A.R., Acker, D., Kaldany, A., Singh, S., Hare, J.W. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. (1981) [Pubmed]
  3. Macrocephaly in children with developmental disabilities. Nevo, Y., Kramer, U., Shinnar, S., Leitner, Y., Fattal-Valevski, A., Villa, Y., Harel, S. Pediatric neurology. (2002) [Pubmed]
  4. The effect of intrauterine growth restriction on the development and health of children. Fattal-Valevski, A., Leitner, Y., Geva, R., Bassan, H., Goez, H., Jaffa, A.J., Harel, S. Nutrition and health (Berkhamsted, Hertfordshire) (2001) [Pubmed]
  5. Neurobehavioral sequelae of fetal cocaine exposure. Singer, L.T., Garber, R., Kliegman, R. J. Pediatr. (1991) [Pubmed]
  6. Pediatric clinical assessment of mother-child interaction: concurrent and predictive validity. Casey, P.H., Barrett, K., Bradley, R.H., Spiker, D. Journal of developmental and behavioral pediatrics : JDBP. (1993) [Pubmed]
  7. Long-term effects of stimulant medications on the brain: possible relevance to the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Vitiello, B. Journal of child and adolescent psychopharmacology. (2001) [Pubmed]
  8. Between practice and theory: Melanie Klein, Anna Freud and the development of child analysis. Donaldson, G. Journal of the history of the behavioral sciences. (1996) [Pubmed]
  9. Child abuse by the middle class? A study of professionals in India. Segal, U.A. Child abuse & neglect. (1995) [Pubmed]
  10. Methylmercury and neurodevelopment: reanalysis of the Seychelles Child Development Study outcomes at 66 months of age. Davidson, P.W., Kost, J., Myers, G.J., Cox, C., Clarkson, T.W., Shamlaye, C.F. JAMA (2001) [Pubmed]
  11. Child development following exposure to tricyclic antidepressants or fluoxetine throughout fetal life: a prospective, controlled study. Nulman, I., Rovet, J., Stewart, D.E., Wolpin, J., Pace-Asciak, P., Shuhaiber, S., Koren, G. The American journal of psychiatry. (2002) [Pubmed]
  12. Pregnancies in women with diabetic nephropathy: long-term outcome for mother and child. Kimmerle, R., Zass, R.P., Cupisti, S., Somville, T., Bender, R., Pawlowski, B., Berger, M. Diabetologia (1995) [Pubmed]
  13. Maternal thyroid peroxidase antibodies during pregnancy: a marker of impaired child development? Pop, V.J., de Vries, E., van Baar, A.L., Waelkens, J.J., de Rooy, H.A., Horsten, M., Donkers, M.M., Komproe, I.H., van Son, M.M., Vader, H.L. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (1995) [Pubmed]
  14. Docosahexaenoic acid transfer into human milk after dietary supplementation: a randomized clinical trial. Fidler, N., Sauerwald, T., Pohl, A., Demmelmair, H., Koletzko, B. J. Lipid Res. (2000) [Pubmed]
  15. Cocaine use during pregnancy: sensitive detection by hair assay. Kline, J., Ng, S.K., Schittini, M., Levin, B., Susser, M. American journal of public health. (1997) [Pubmed]
  16. Intellectual development in children with congenital hypothyroidism in relation to recommended thyroxine treatment. Heyerdahl, S., Kase, B.F., Lie, S.O. J. Pediatr. (1991) [Pubmed]
  17. Prenatal exposure of the northern Québec Inuit infants to environmental contaminants. Muckle, G., Ayotte, P., Dewailly E, E., Jacobson, S.W., Jacobson, J.L. Environ. Health Perspect. (2001) [Pubmed]
  18. Melatonin production in healthy infants: evidence for seasonal variations. Sivan, Y., Laudon, M., Tauman, R., Zisapel, N. Pediatr. Res. (2001) [Pubmed]
  19. Development after exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls and dichlorodiphenyl dichloroethene transplacentally and through human milk. Gladen, B.C., Rogan, W.J., Hardy, P., Thullen, J., Tingelstad, J., Tully, M. J. Pediatr. (1988) [Pubmed]
  20. Iron deficiency alters auditory recognition memory in newborn infants of diabetic mothers. Siddappa, A.M., Georgieff, M.K., Wewerka, S., Worwa, C., Nelson, C.A., Deregnier, R.A. Pediatr. Res. (2004) [Pubmed]
  21. Medical eligibility criteria for new contraceptive methods: combined hormonal patch, combined hormonal vaginal ring and the etonogestrel implant. Gaffield, M.E., Curtis, K.M., Mohllajee, A.P., Peterson, H.B. Contraception. (2006) [Pubmed]
  22. Hypothyroxinemia of prematurity and infant neurodevelopment: a pilot study. Ishaik, G., Asztalos, E., Perlman, K., Newton, S., Frisk, V., Rovet, J. Journal of developmental and behavioral pediatrics : JDBP. (2000) [Pubmed]
  23. Parenting styles and risks in the vulnerable infant. Zeanah, C.H., Scheeringa, M., Boris, N. Curr. Opin. Pediatr. (1994) [Pubmed]
  24. Vision screening at 8 and 18 months. Steering Committee of Oxford Region Child Development Project. Johnson, A., Stayte, M., Wortham, C. BMJ (1989) [Pubmed]
  25. Cognitive, behavioral, and social outcome in survivors of childhood stem cell transplantation. Simms, S., Kazak, A.E., Golomb, V., Goldwein, J., Bunin, N. J. Pediatr. Hematol. Oncol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  26. A combined subchronic (90-day) toxicity and neurotoxicity study of a single-cell source of docosahexaenoic acid triglyceride (DHASCO oil). Arterburn, L.M., Boswell, K.D., Koskelo, E., Kassner, S.L., Kelly, C., Kyle, D.J. Food Chem. Toxicol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  27. Association of dopamine D4 receptor (DRD4) gene with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in a high-risk community sample: a longitudinal study from birth to 11 years of age. El-Faddagh, M., Laucht, M., Maras, A., Vöhringer, L., Schmidt, M.H. Journal of neural transmission (Vienna, Austria : 1996) (2004) [Pubmed]
  28. A review of developmental aspects of cytochrome P450. Oesterheld, J.R. Journal of child and adolescent psychopharmacology. (1998) [Pubmed]
  29. Phenotype and genotype for thiopurine methyltransferase activity in the French Caucasian population: impact of age. Ganiere-Monteil, C., Medard, Y., Lejus, C., Bruneau, B., Pineau, A., Fenneteau, O., Bourin, M., Jacqz-Aigrain, E. Eur. J. Clin. Pharmacol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  30. Mental development and learning disorders in children with single suture craniosynostosis. Kapp-Simon, K.A. The Cleft palate-craniofacial journal : official publication of the American Cleft Palate-Craniofacial Association. (1998) [Pubmed]
  31. The Child Development Inventory: A developmental outcome measure for follow-up of the high-risk infant. Doig, K.B., Macias, M.M., Saylor, C.F., Craver, J.R., Ingram, P.E. J. Pediatr. (1999) [Pubmed]
  32. Developmental outcome at 2 years of age for children born after ICSI compared with children born after IVF. Bonduelle, M., Ponjaert, I., Steirteghem, A.V., Derde, M.P., Devroey, P., Liebaers, I. Hum. Reprod. (2003) [Pubmed]
  33. Obstetric analgesia and infant outcome in monkeys: infant development after intrapartum exposure to meperidine or alfentanil. Golub, M.S., Eisele, J.H., Donald, J.M. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. (1988) [Pubmed]
  34. The predictive value of developmental testing of extremely jaundiced African infants. Wolf, M.J., Wolf, B., Bijleveld, C., Beunen, G., Casaer, P. Developmental medicine and child neurology. (1998) [Pubmed]
  35. Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in breast milk: are they essential? Gibson, R.A., Makrides, M. Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  36. The efficacy of an early prevention program facilitated by occupational therapists: a follow-up study. Parush, S., Hahn-Markowitz, J. The American journal of occupational therapy. : official publication of the American Occupational Therapy Association. (1997) [Pubmed]
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