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Gene Review

Cbx2  -  chromobox 2

Mus musculus

Synonyms: Chromobox protein homolog 2, M33, MOD2, Modifier 3 protein, pc
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Disease relevance of Cbx2

  • Immunoblots probed with an antibody to M33 protein, a homolog of Drosophila Polycomb, revealed that most M33 in adult mouse liver had a higher electrophoretic mobility than that in F9 embryonal carcinoma cells [1].
  • This ability to promote cellular migration suggests a role for viral GPCRs like M33 in viral dissemination in vivo, and accordingly, M33 is required for efficient murine cytomegalovirus replication in the mouse [2].
  • In this study, we used recombinant retroviruses to express M33 in wild-type and Galpha(q/11)(-/-) mouse embryonic fibroblasts and show that M33 couples directly to the G(q/11) signaling pathway to induce high levels of total inositol phosphates in an agonist-independent manner [2].
  • Sequencing of some immune evasion genes known to be located at the 3' or 5' ends of the MCMV genome showed that no mutations were present in ORFs m04, m06, M33, M37, m38.5, m144, m152, or m157 although mutations were found in M27 (A658S) and M36Ex1 (V54I). tsm5 made few capsids at 40 degrees C and these lacked DNA [3].

High impact information on Cbx2

  • Bmi1, M33, and Mph1 show an overlapping speckled distribution in interphase nuclei [4].
  • Ring1A represses transcription through sequences not involved in M33 binding [5].
  • Furthermore, we have identified two murine proteins, Ring1A and Ring1B, that interact directly with the repressor domain of M33 [5].
  • The late replication data are consistent with the measurements of levels of mitochondrial malic enzyme (MOD-2, whose locus is on the autosomal segment) activity in these mice [Eicher E. & Coleman, D. (1977) Genetics 85, 647-658] [6].
  • Mouse Polycomb M33 is required for splenic vascular and adrenal gland formation through regulating Ad4BP/SF1 expression [7].

Biological context of Cbx2


Anatomical context of Cbx2


Associations of Cbx2 with chemical compounds

  • Mouse chimeras were produced from strains which differ in their electrophoretic variants of the nuclear-coded mitochondrial protein, malic enzyme (MOD-2, E.C., L-malate NADP+ oxidoreductase decarboxylating) [14].

Regulatory relationships of Cbx2

  • Disruption of E2F signaling suppresses the INK4a-induced proliferative defect in M33-deficient mice [11].

Other interactions of Cbx2

  • In agreement with these observations, chromatin immunoprecipitation assays with adrenocortical Y-1 cells revealed direct binding of the M33-containing PcG to the Ad4BP/SF1 gene locus [7].
  • The expression of Ring1A at early stages of development is restricted to the neural tube, whereas M33 is expressed ubiquitously [5].
  • A further nine recombinants were detected between Ts and the polycomb-like gene M33, suggesting that these loci are separated by 1.8 +/- 0.011 cM [15].
  • Sry, Sox9 and M33 are thought to act as architectural transcription factors or as a chromatin regulator in gonadal development [16].
  • Here, we report the cloning and characterization of a novel mouse polycomb homolog, MPc2, in addition to the previously described M33 polycomb gene [17].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Cbx2

  • By 60 h, most M33 was in the form of these low-mobility species, and the pattern of immunofluorescence suggested the existence of chromatin-bound and free states of the protein in the nucleus [1].
  • Gel filtration analysis of embryonic extracts indicates that RAE28, BMI1 and M33 exist in large multimeric complexes [12].


  1. Nuclear translocation of mouse polycomb m33 protein in regenerating liver. Noguchi, K., Shiurba, R., Higashinakagawa, T. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (2002) [Pubmed]
  2. G Protein-coupled Receptor (GPCR) Kinase 2 Regulates Agonist-independent Gq/11 Signaling from the Mouse Cytomegalovirus GPCR M33. Sherrill, J.D., Miller, W.E. J. Biol. Chem. (2006) [Pubmed]
  3. Mutations in the temperature-sensitive murine cytomegalovirus (MCMV) mutants tsm5 and tsm30: A study of genes involved in immune evasion, DNA packaging and processing, and DNA replication. Sweet, C., Ball, K., Morley, P.J., Guilfoyle, K., Kirby, M. J. Med. Virol. (2007) [Pubmed]
  4. Identification of Bmi1-interacting proteins as constituents of a multimeric mammalian polycomb complex. Alkema, M.J., Bronk, M., Verhoeven, E., Otte, A., van 't Veer, L.J., Berns, A., van Lohuizen, M. Genes Dev. (1997) [Pubmed]
  5. Ring1A is a transcriptional repressor that interacts with the Polycomb-M33 protein and is expressed at rhombomere boundaries in the mouse hindbrain. Schoorlemmer, J., Marcos-Gutiérrez, C., Were, F., Martínez, R., García, E., Satijn, D.P., Otte, A.P., Vidal, M. EMBO J. (1997) [Pubmed]
  6. Late replication in an X-autosome translocation in the mouse: correlation with genetic inactivation and evidence for selective effects during embryogenesis. Disteche, C.M., Eicher, E.M., Latt, S.A. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1979) [Pubmed]
  7. Mouse Polycomb M33 is required for splenic vascular and adrenal gland formation through regulating Ad4BP/SF1 expression. Katoh-Fukui, Y., Owaki, A., Toyama, Y., Kusaka, M., Shinohara, Y., Maekawa, M., Toshimori, K., Morohashi, K. Blood (2005) [Pubmed]
  8. Altered retinoic acid sensitivity and temporal expression of Hox genes in polycomb-M33-deficient mice. Bel-Vialar, S., Coré, N., Terranova, R., Goudot, V., Boned, A., Djabali, M. Dev. Biol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  9. Genetic interactions and dosage effects of Polycomb group genes in mice. Bel, S., Coré, N., Djabali, M., Kieboom, K., Van der Lugt, N., Alkema, M.J., Van Lohuizen, M. Development (1998) [Pubmed]
  10. Altered cellular proliferation and mesoderm patterning in Polycomb-M33-deficient mice. Coré, N., Bel, S., Gaunt, S.J., Aurrand-Lions, M., Pearce, J., Fisher, A., Djabali, M. Development (1997) [Pubmed]
  11. Disruption of E2F signaling suppresses the INK4a-induced proliferative defect in M33-deficient mice. Coré, N., Joly, F., Boned, A., Djabali, M. Oncogene (2004) [Pubmed]
  12. RAE28, BMI1, and M33 are members of heterogeneous multimeric mammalian Polycomb group complexes. Hashimoto, N., Brock, H.W., Nomura, M., Kyba, M., Hodgson, J., Fujita, Y., Takihara, Y., Shimada, K., Higashinakagawa, T. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (1998) [Pubmed]
  13. Mouse cytomegalovirus M33 is necessary and sufficient in virus-induced vascular smooth muscle cell migration. Melnychuk, R.M., Smith, P., Kreklywich, C.N., Ruchti, F., Vomaske, J., Hall, L., Loh, L., Nelson, J.A., Orloff, S.L., Streblow, D.N. J. Virol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  14. Mitochondrial malic enzyme in mosaic skeletal muscle of mouse chimeras. Frair, P.M., Strasberg, P.M., Freeman, K.B., Peterson, A.C. Biochem. Genet. (1979) [Pubmed]
  15. Exclusion of Sox9 as a candidate for the mouse mutant tail-short. Uchida, K., Koopman, P., Mita, A., Wakana, S., Wright, E., Kikkawa, Y., Yonekawa, H., Moriwaki, K., Shiroishi, T. Mamm. Genome (1996) [Pubmed]
  16. Effects of trichostatin a, a histone deacetylase inhibitor, on mouse gonadal development in vitro. Mizukami, T., Fujisawa, M., Kanai, Y., Kurohmaru, M., Hayashi, Y. J. Reprod. Dev. (2004) [Pubmed]
  17. MPc2, a new murine homolog of the Drosophila polycomb protein is a member of the mouse polycomb transcriptional repressor complex. Alkema, M.J., Jacobs, J., Voncken, J.W., Jenkins, N.A., Copeland, N.G., Satijn, D.P., Otte, A.P., Berns, A., van Lohuizen, M. J. Mol. Biol. (1997) [Pubmed]
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