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Gene Review

Crygd  -  crystallin, gamma D

Mus musculus

Synonyms: Aey4, Cryg-1, DGcry-1, Gamma-D-crystallin, Gamma-crystallin 1, ...
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Disease relevance of Crygd

  • Lens opacity 12 (Lop12) is a semidominant mutation that results in an irregular nuclear lens opacity similar to the human Coppock cataract [1].
  • Proteins with mutations at the C terminus demonstrated no significant chaperone-like activity, failing to confer thermotolerance on E. coli and demonstrating no significant inhibition of protein aggregation in either gamma-crystallin or reduced insulin B chain assays [2].

High impact information on Crygd


Biological context of Crygd

  • Finally, a T-->A exchange in exon 2 of the gammaD-crystallin encoding gene (symbol: Crygd) was demonstrated to be causative for the cataract phenotype; this particular mutation is, therefore, referred to Crygo(Aey4) [8].
  • The candidate genes (the Cryg gene cluster and the closely linked Cryba2 gene) were sequenced [9].
  • A number of murine cataract mutations have been localized to chromosome 1 close to the gamma-crystallin gene cluster (Cryg) (Everett et al., 1994, Genomics 20: 429-434; Löster et al., 1994, Genomics 23: 240-242) [10].
  • The mutation was mapped to Chromosome 1 by a genome-wide linkage making the six gamma-crystallin encoding genes and the closely linked betaA2-crystallin encoding gene to relevant candidate genes [8].
  • During a large-scale ENU mutagenesis screen, a mouse mutant with a dominant cataract was detected and referred to as Aey4 [8].

Anatomical context of Crygd


Associations of Crygd with chemical compounds


Other interactions of Crygd

  • It suggests that the cluster of gamma-crystallin encoding genes (Cryg) and the betaA2-crystallin encoding gene Cryba2 are excellent candidate genes [20].
  • Two mutations occur at the same site in the Crygd and Cryge genes (Leu45-->Pro) [9].
  • Three murine cataract mutants (Cat2) are defective in different gamma-crystallin genes [10].
  • Using a systematic candidate gene approach to analyze the entire Cryg cluster, an A-->G transition was found in exon 2 of Cryga for the ENU-436 mutation and is designated Cryga1Neu [10].
  • The map position of Cryg, near the eye lens obsolescence (Elo) locus, was confirmed by the discovery that the restriction fragment patterns of gamma crystallin sequences differed between strain C3H/HeJ and the congenic anophthalmic mutant strain, C3H.Elo [21].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Crygd


  1. Lop12, a mutation in mouse Crygd causing lens opacity similar to human Coppock cataract. Smith, R.S., Hawes, N.L., Chang, B., Roderick, T.H., Akeson, E.C., Heckenlively, J.R., Gong, X., Wang, X., Davisson, M.T. Genomics (2000) [Pubmed]
  2. Effects of site-directed mutations on the chaperone-like activity of alphaB-crystallin. Plater, M.L., Goode, D., Crabbe, M.J. J. Biol. Chem. (1996) [Pubmed]
  3. A frameshift mutation in the gamma E-crystallin gene of the Elo mouse. Cartier, M., Breitman, M.L., Tsui, L.C. Nat. Genet. (1992) [Pubmed]
  4. Tissue-specific expression of a cloned chick delta-crystallin gene in mouse cells. Kondoh, H., Yasuda, K., Okada, T.S. Nature (1983) [Pubmed]
  5. In situ detection of beta-galactosidase in lenses of transgenic mice with a gamma-crystallin/lacZ gene. Goring, D.R., Rossant, J., Clapoff, S., Breitman, M.L., Tsui, L.C. Science (1987) [Pubmed]
  6. Selective loss of a family of gene transcripts in a hereditary murine cataract. Garber, A.T., Winkler, C., Shinohara, T., King, C.R., Inana, G., Piatigorsky, J., Gold, R.J. Science (1985) [Pubmed]
  7. Sox1 directly regulates the gamma-crystallin genes and is essential for lens development in mice. Nishiguchi, S., Wood, H., Kondoh, H., Lovell-Badge, R., Episkopou, V. Genes Dev. (1998) [Pubmed]
  8. V76D mutation in a conserved gD-crystallin region leads to dominant cataracts in mice. Graw, J., Löster, J., Soewarto, D., Fuchs, H., Reis, A., Wolf, E., Balling, R., Hrabé de Angelis, M. Mamm. Genome (2002) [Pubmed]
  9. Genetic and allelic heterogeneity of Cryg mutations in eight distinct forms of dominant cataract in the mouse. Graw, J., Neuhäuser-Klaus, A., Klopp, N., Selby, P.B., Löster, J., Favor, J. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (2004) [Pubmed]
  10. Three murine cataract mutants (Cat2) are defective in different gamma-crystallin genes. Klopp, N., Favor, J., Löster, J., Lutz, R.B., Neuhäuser-Klaus, A., Prescott, A., Pretsch, W., Quinlan, R.A., Sandilands, A., Vrensen, G.F., Graw, J. Genomics (1998) [Pubmed]
  11. Antagonistic action of Six3 and Prox1 at the gamma-crystallin promoter. Lengler, J., Krausz, E., Tomarev, S., Prescott, A., Quinlan, R.A., Graw, J. Nucleic Acids Res. (2001) [Pubmed]
  12. Somatic cell mapping and restriction fragment analysis of bovine genes for fibronectin and gamma crystallin. Adkison, L.R., Skow, L.C., Thomas, T.L., Petrash, M., Womack, J.E. Cytogenet. Cell Genet. (1988) [Pubmed]
  13. Xenopus tropicalis transgenic lines and their use in the study of embryonic induction. Hirsch, N., Zimmerman, L.B., Gray, J., Chae, J., Curran, K.L., Fisher, M., Ogino, H., Grainger, R.M. Dev. Dyn. (2002) [Pubmed]
  14. Specific interaction between lens MIP/Aquaporin-0 and two members of the gamma-crystallin family. Fan, J., Fariss, R.N., Purkiss, A.G., Slingsby, C., Sandilands, A., Quinlan, R., Wistow, G., Chepelinsky, A.B. Mol. Vis. (2005) [Pubmed]
  15. Synthesis of gamma crystallin by a cloned cell line from Nakano mouse lens. Russell, P., Carper, D.A., Kinoshita, J.H. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (1978) [Pubmed]
  16. Multiple gamma-crystallins of the mouse lens: fractionation of mRNAs by cDNA cloning. Shinohara, T., Robinson, E.A., Appella, E., Piatigorsky, J. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1982) [Pubmed]
  17. Regional localization of the fibronectin and gamma-crystallin genes to bovine chromosome 8. Zneimer, S.M., Womack, J.E. Genomics (1989) [Pubmed]
  18. Progressive modifications of mouse lens crystallins in cataracts induced by buthionine sulfoximine. Calvin, H.I., Patel, S.A., Zhang, J.P., Li, M.Y., Fu, S.C. Exp. Eye Res. (1992) [Pubmed]
  19. Defining a link between gap junction communication, proteolysis, and cataract formation. Baruch, A., Greenbaum, D., Levy, E.T., Nielsen, P.A., Gilula, N.B., Kumar, N.M., Bogyo, M. J. Biol. Chem. (2001) [Pubmed]
  20. Ethylnitrosourea-induced base pair substitution affects splicing of the mouse gammaE-crystallin encoding gene leading to the expression of a hybrid protein and to a cataract. Graw, J., Neuhäuser-Klaus, A., Löster, J., Klopp, N., Favor, J. Genetics (2002) [Pubmed]
  21. Mapping of mouse gamma crystallin genes on chromosome 1. Skow, L.C., Donner, M.E., Huang, S.M., Gardner, J.M., Taylor, B.A., Beamer, W.G., Lalley, P.A. Biochem. Genet. (1988) [Pubmed]
  22. Gamma-crystallin family of the mouse lens: structural and evolutionary relationships. Breitman, M.L., Lok, S., Wistow, G., Piatigorsky, J., Tréton, J.A., Gold, R.J., Tsui, L.C. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1984) [Pubmed]
  23. Characterization of a 1-bp deletion in the gammaE-crystallin gene leading to a nuclear and zonular cataract in the mouse. Klopp, N., Löster, J., Graw, J. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (2001) [Pubmed]
  24. Histological and biochemical characterization of the murine cataract mutant Nop. Graw, J., Werner, T., Merkle, S., Reitmeir, P., Schäffer, E., Wulff, A. Exp. Eye Res. (1990) [Pubmed]
  25. Regional localization of the fibronectin and gamma crystallin genes to mouse chromosome 1 by in situ hybridization. Zneimer, S.M., Womack, J.E. Cytogenet. Cell Genet. (1988) [Pubmed]
  26. Retinal expression of gamma-crystallins in the mouse. Jones, S.E., Jomary, C., Grist, J., Makwana, J., Neal, M.J. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (1999) [Pubmed]
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