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Gene Review

Neurog1  -  neurogenin 1

Mus musculus

Synonyms: AKA, Ath4c, Helix-loop-helix protein mATH-4C, Math4C, NGN-1, ...
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Disease relevance of Neurog1


High impact information on Neurog1

  • We found that Ngn function is required to maintain these two separate expression domains, as Mash1 expression is up-regulated in the dorsal telencephalon of Ngn mutant embryos [2].
  • Neurogenin1 (Ngn1), Neurogenin2 (Ngn2), and Mash1 encode bHLH transcription factors with neuronal determination functions [2].
  • These findings indicate that SOCS2 promotes neuronal differentiation by blocking growth hormone-mediated downregulation of Ngn1 [3].
  • Crossinhibitory activities of Ngn1 and Math1 allow specification of distinct dorsal interneurons [4].
  • In vivo and in vitro analyses revealed that mutant neural crest cells emigrate but fail to generate an early wave of sensory neurogenesis that is normally marked by the transcription factor neurogenin (ngn) 2 [5].

Biological context of Neurog1

  • Ngn1 and Ngn2 are required to specify the cortical (regional), glutamatergic (neurotransmitter) and laminar (temporal) characters of early-born (lower-layer) neurons, while simultaneously repressing an alternative subcortical, GABAergic neuronal phenotype [6].
  • Hair cells in Neurog 1 null mice show cell cycle exit in an apex-to-base progression about 1-2 days earlier [7].
  • Neurog 1 null mice show a truncation of clonal expansion of hair cell precursors through temporally altered terminal mitosis, thereby resulting in smaller sensory epithelia [7].
  • Thus, the regulatory elements of ngn1 appear to be conserved among vertebrates, with certain differences being incorporated in the utilisation of these enhancers, for the acquisition of more advanced features in amniotes [8].
  • The upstream regions of the zebrafish and mammalian ngn1 loci harbour several stretches of conserved sequences [8].

Anatomical context of Neurog1


Associations of Neurog1 with chemical compounds

  • Treatment with retinoic acid (RA) induced expression of Ngn1 as well as NeuroD in P19 cells in early period of neuronal differentiation [1].

Regulatory relationships of Neurog1


Other interactions of Neurog1

  • The neurogenesis defect in ngn2(-/-) embryos is transient and later compensated by ngn1-dependent precursors, suggesting that feedback or competitive interactions between these precursors may control the proportion of different neuronal subtypes they normally produce [16].
  • We also report that growth hormone inhibited Ngn1 expression and neuronal production, and this action was blocked by SOCS2 overexpression [3].
  • We investigated whether co-expression of Neurog 1 and Atoh 1 in common neurosensory precursors could explain the loss of hair cells in Neurog 1 null mice [7].
  • Lhx2-/- embryos have, however, a normal distribution of Mash1-positive and neurogenin 1-positive neuronal progenitors that leave the cell cycle, acquire pan-neuronal traits and form axon bundles [17].
  • We define restricted neural progenitor populations by the discrete, nonoverlapping expression of Ngn1, Math1, and Mash1 [4].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Neurog1

  • In the CNS in situ hybridization to serial sections and double-labeling experiments indicate that Mash1 and ngn1 are expressed in adjacent and nonoverlapping regions of the neuroepithelium that correspond to future functionally distinct areas of the brain [18].
  • We show that ventral neural stem cells transfected with Ngn1 are integrated as GABAergic neurons within a few days of transplantation into the adult mouse neocortex [19].


  1. Neurogenin1 is sufficient to induce neuronal differentiation of embryonal carcinoma P19 cells in the absence of retinoic acid. Kim, S., Yoon, Y.S., Kim, J.W., Jung, M., Kim, S.U., Lee, Y.D., Suh-Kim, H. Cell. Mol. Neurobiol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  2. A role for neural determination genes in specifying the dorsoventral identity of telencephalic neurons. Fode, C., Ma, Q., Casarosa, S., Ang, S.L., Anderson, D.J., Guillemot, F. Genes Dev. (2000) [Pubmed]
  3. Suppressor of cytokine signaling 2 regulates neuronal differentiation by inhibiting growth hormone signaling. Turnley, A.M., Faux, C.H., Rietze, R.L., Coonan, J.R., Bartlett, P.F. Nat. Neurosci. (2002) [Pubmed]
  4. Crossinhibitory activities of Ngn1 and Math1 allow specification of distinct dorsal interneurons. Gowan, K., Helms, A.W., Hunsaker, T.L., Collisson, T., Ebert, P.J., Odom, R., Johnson, J.E. Neuron (2001) [Pubmed]
  5. Lineage-specific requirements of beta-catenin in neural crest development. Hari, L., Brault, V., Kléber, M., Lee, H.Y., Ille, F., Leimeroth, R., Paratore, C., Suter, U., Kemler, R., Sommer, L. J. Cell Biol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  6. Sequential phases of cortical specification involve Neurogenin-dependent and -independent pathways. Schuurmans, C., Armant, O., Nieto, M., Stenman, J.M., Britz, O., Klenin, N., Brown, C., Langevin, L.M., Seibt, J., Tang, H., Cunningham, J.M., Dyck, R., Walsh, C., Campbell, K., Polleux, F., Guillemot, F. EMBO J. (2004) [Pubmed]
  7. Smaller inner ear sensory epithelia in Neurog 1 null mice are related to earlier hair cell cycle exit. Matei, V., Pauley, S., Kaing, S., Rowitch, D., Beisel, K.W., Morris, K., Feng, F., Jones, K., Lee, J., Fritzsch, B. Dev. Dyn. (2005) [Pubmed]
  8. Conserved and acquired features of neurogenin1 regulation. Blader, P., Lam, C.S., Rastegar, S., Scardigli, R., Nicod, J.C., Simplicio, N., Plessy, C., Fischer, N., Schuurmans, C., Guillemot, F., Strähle, U. Development (2004) [Pubmed]
  9. A screen for downstream effectors of Neurogenin2 in the embryonic neocortex. Mattar, P., Britz, O., Johannes, C., Nieto, M., Ma, L., Rebeyka, A., Klenin, N., Polleux, F., Guillemot, F., Schuurmans, C. Dev. Biol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  10. Gsh2 is required for the repression of Ngn1 and specification of dorsal interneuron fate in the spinal cord. Kriks, S., Lanuza, G.M., Mizuguchi, R., Nakafuku, M., Goulding, M. Development (2005) [Pubmed]
  11. Separable enhancer sequences regulate the expression of the neural bHLH transcription factor neurogenin 1. Nakada, Y., Parab, P., Simmons, A., Omer-Abdalla, A., Johnson, J.E. Dev. Biol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  12. Induction of neurogenin-1 expression by sonic hedgehog: Its role in development of trigeminal sensory neurons. Ota, M., Ito, K. Dev. Dyn. (2003) [Pubmed]
  13. BMP and FGF-2 regulate neurogenin-2 expression and the differentiation of sensory neurons and glia. Ota, M., Ito, K. Dev. Dyn. (2006) [Pubmed]
  14. Mash1 and Ngn1 control distinct steps of determination and differentiation in the olfactory sensory neuron lineage. Cau, E., Casarosa, S., Guillemot, F. Development (2002) [Pubmed]
  15. The Wnt/beta-catenin pathway directs neuronal differentiation of cortical neural precursor cells. Hirabayashi, Y., Itoh, Y., Tabata, H., Nakajima, K., Akiyama, T., Masuyama, N., Gotoh, Y. Development (2004) [Pubmed]
  16. Neurogenin1 and neurogenin2 control two distinct waves of neurogenesis in developing dorsal root ganglia. Ma, Q., Fode, C., Guillemot, F., Anderson, D.J. Genes Dev. (1999) [Pubmed]
  17. The Lim homeobox gene Lhx2 is required for olfactory sensory neuron identity. Kolterud, A., Alenius, M., Carlsson, L., Bohm, S. Development (2004) [Pubmed]
  18. Mash1 and neurogenin1 expression patterns define complementary domains of neuroepithelium in the developing CNS and are correlated with regions expressing notch ligands. Ma, Q., Sommer, L., Cserjesi, P., Anderson, D.J. J. Neurosci. (1997) [Pubmed]
  19. Transplantation of GABAergic neurons into adult mouse neocortex. Muramatsu, D., Sato, Y., Hishiyama, S., Miyamoto, Y., Hisatsune, T. Exp. Neurol. (2005) [Pubmed]
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