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Gene Review

NEUROG1  -  neurogenin 1

Homo sapiens

Synonyms: AKA, BHLHA6, Class A basic helix-loop-helix protein 6, Math4C, NEUROD3, ...
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Disease relevance of NEUROG1


Psychiatry related information on NEUROG1

  • Autism AKA communication disorder [5].
  • Increased age (p < .001), cerebrovascular disease (p < .001), dementia (p = .002), and AKA (p < .001) were associated with failure to fit [6].

High impact information on NEUROG1

  • Thus, two distinct mechanisms are involved in the activation and suppression of gene expression during cell-fate specification by neurogenin [7].
  • We find that in addition to inducing neurogenesis, the bHLH transcription factor neurogenin (Ngn1) inhibits the differentiation of neural stem cells into astrocytes [7].
  • A new study in zebrafish, supported by recent findings in Drosophila, has now challenged this idea by demonstrating that the activity of Neurogenin 1 is limited to activation of development of two classes of sensory neurons [8].
  • Rabbit antiserum to human keratin did not inhibit the reaction of AKA against the keratin layer of rat esophagus [3].
  • There was no relationship between the frequency of AKA and the occurrence of other serum autoantibodies such as antibodies to intermediate filaments, smooth muscle, and nuclear antigens [3].

Chemical compound and disease context of NEUROG1

  • AKA is an acute metabolic disorder that occurs in ethanol abusers who have usually had a recent binge and who, because of gastritis or another intercurrent illness, stop eating and drinking and often vomit repeatedly [9].

Biological context of NEUROG1


Anatomical context of NEUROG1

  • Overexpression of the full-length Ngn1 induced neurite outgrowth in F11 cells in the absence of cAMP [2].
  • In this study, we investigated the neurogenic potential of Ngn1 using neuroblastoma cell line, F11, which could be induced to differentiate into neurons in the presence of cAMP [2].
  • Here, we show that recombinant human erythropoietin (rhEPO) significantly increased Akt activity and Ngn1 mRNA levels in neural progenitor cells derived from the subventricular zone (SVZ) of adult rat, which was coincident with increases of neural progenitor cell proliferation, differentiation, and neurite outgrowth [14].
  • Proneuronal basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factor, neurogenin 1 (Ngn1), regulates neuronal differentiation during development of the cerebral cortex [14].
  • Lower extremity amputation may be performed with an overall acceptably low mortality rate, which for our series is 0.9% for 113 below-knee amputation (BKA) and 2.8% for 140 AKA levels [15].

Associations of NEUROG1 with chemical compounds

  • Inhibition of Akt activity by the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt (PI3K/Akt) inhibitor, LY294002, abolished rhEPO-increased Ngn1 mRNA levels and the effects of rhEPO on neural progenitor cells [14].
  • A 25-residue, alanine-rich, helical peptide [Ac-(AAAAK)(4)-AAAAY-NH(2) (AKA)] and its two leucine variants [Ac-LLLLK-(AAAAK)(3)-AAAAY-NH(2) (LKA) and Ac-(AAAAK)(4)-LLLLY-NH(2) (AKL)] were characterized by infrared (IR) and electronic circular dichroism (ECD) spectroscopies [16].
  • The latex test detected autoAb in 46% of patients, RF-IgM was detected in 51%, RF-IgA in 36%, RF-IgG in 32%, AKA in 33%, APF in 45%, ACRFA in 45%, ACAST-C27 in 14%, ACAST-DI in 5%, anti-Sa in 22%, ACL in 3%, ANCA in 28%, aANX V in 9% and anti-Ro in 2% [17].
  • DETA-NONOate selectively increased Neurogenin 1 and decreased glial fibrillary acidic protein mRNA expression in retired breeder neurospheres [18].
  • In particular, we reported for the first time that RA treatment was followed by a modulation of endogenous Ngn1 and Math1 transcripts [19].

Other interactions of NEUROG1


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of NEUROG1

  • In cortical progenitor cell cultures, the proneural basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor Ngn1 suppresses formation of astrocytes by sequestering coactivator proteins that are required by signal transducers and activators of transcription for the expression of astrocyte-specific genes [23].
  • Main outcome variables included operative mortality, follow-up, survival, median time to incision healing, secondary operative procedures for wound management, and conversion from below-knee amputation (BKA) to above-knee amputation (AKA) [4].
  • CONCLUSION--This immunoblotting assay which is the first immunochemical method proposed for the detection of 'AKA, should be validated on larger series of patients but can already be considered as a very powerful test for the serological diagnosis of RA [24].
  • AFA can be detected by indirect immunofluorescence (anti-keratin antibodies, AKA) or by new enzyme immunoassays (EIA) [25].
  • For a diagnostic specificity of 99%, the diagnostic sensitivities of the detection of the A and B proteins were 50% and 43.2%, respectively, when those of the detection of 'AKA' by IIF and of IgM-rheumatoid factor by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay were 42% and 54%, respectively [24].


  1. Expression of neurogenic basic helix-loop-helix genes in primitive neuroectodermal tumors. Rostomily, R.C., Bermingham-McDonogh, O., Berger, M.S., Tapscott, S.J., Reh, T.A., Olson, J.M. Cancer Res. (1997) [Pubmed]
  2. Overexpression of neurogenin1 induces neurite outgrowth in F11 neuroblastoma cells. Kim, S., Ghil, S.H., Kim, S.S., Myeong, H.H., Lee, Y.D., Suh-Kim, H. Exp. Mol. Med. (2002) [Pubmed]
  3. Reactivity of serum antibodies to the keratin layer of rat esophagus in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Quismorio, F.P., Kaufman, R.L., Beardmore, T., Mongan, E.S. Arthritis Rheum. (1983) [Pubmed]
  4. Functional outcome in a contemporary series of major lower extremity amputations. Nehler, M.R., Coll, J.R., Hiatt, W.R., Regensteiner, J.G., Schnickel, G.T., Klenke, W.A., Strecker, P.K., Anderson, M.W., Jones, D.N., Whitehill, T.A., Moskowitz, S., Krupski, W.C. J. Vasc. Surg. (2003) [Pubmed]
  5. Autism AKA communication disorder. Greenspan, S.I. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. (1993) [Pubmed]
  6. Rehabilitation of the geriatric vascular amputee patient: a population-based study. Fletcher, D.D., Andrews, K.L., Butters, M.A., Jacobsen, S.J., Rowland, C.M., Hallett, J.W. Archives of physical medicine and rehabilitation. (2001) [Pubmed]
  7. Neurogenin promotes neurogenesis and inhibits glial differentiation by independent mechanisms. Sun, Y., Nadal-Vicens, M., Misono, S., Lin, M.Z., Zubiaga, A., Hua, X., Fan, G., Greenberg, M.E. Cell (2001) [Pubmed]
  8. Proneural, prosensory, antiglial: the many faces of neurogenins. Korzh, V., Strähle, U. Trends Neurosci. (2002) [Pubmed]
  9. Alcoholic ketoacidosis. Fulop, M. Endocrinol. Metab. Clin. North Am. (1993) [Pubmed]
  10. NEUROD2 and NEUROD3 genes map to human chromosomes 17q12 and 5q23-q31 and mouse chromosomes 11 and 13, respectively. Tamimi, R.M., Steingrimsson, E., Montgomery-Dyer, K., Copeland, N.G., Jenkins, N.A., Tapscott, S.J. Genomics (1997) [Pubmed]
  11. NeuroD homologue expression during cortical development in the human brain. Franklin, A., Kao, A., Tapscott, S., Unis, A. J. Child Neurol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  12. Sox1 acts through multiple independent pathways to promote neurogenesis. Kan, L., Israsena, N., Zhang, Z., Hu, M., Zhao, L.R., Jalali, A., Sahni, V., Kessler, J.A. Dev. Biol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  13. Degradation of Id2 by the anaphase-promoting complex couples cell cycle exit and axonal growth. Lasorella, A., Stegmüller, J., Guardavaccaro, D., Liu, G., Carro, M.S., Rothschild, G., de la Torre-Ubieta, L., Pagano, M., Bonni, A., Iavarone, A. Nature (2006) [Pubmed]
  14. Neurogenin 1 mediates erythropoietin enhanced differentiation of adult neural progenitor cells. Wang, L., Zhang, Z.G., Zhang, R.L., Jiao, Z.X., Wang, Y., Pourabdollah-Nejad D, S., Letourneau, Y., Gregg, S.R., Chopp, M. J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. (2006) [Pubmed]
  15. Gangrene of the immediate postoperative above-knee amputation stump: role of emergency revascularization in preventing death. Bunt, T.J. J. Vasc. Surg. (1985) [Pubmed]
  16. Probing the effect of side chains on the conformation and stability of helical peptides via isotope-edited infrared spectroscopy. Silva, R.A., Nguyen, J.Y., Decatur, S.M. Biochemistry (2002) [Pubmed]
  17. Rheumatoid factor is the strongest predictor of radiological progression of rheumatoid arthritis in a three-year prospective study in community-recruited patients. Vittecoq, O., Pouplin, S., Krzanowska, K., Jouen-Beades, F., Menard, J.F., Gayet, A., Daragon, A., Tron, F., Le Loet, X. Rheumatology (Oxford, England) (2003) [Pubmed]
  18. N-cadherin mediates nitric oxide-induced neurogenesis in young and retired breeder neurospheres. Chen, J., Zacharek, A., Li, Y., Li, A., Wang, L., Katakowski, M., Roberts, C., Lu, M., Chopp, M. Neuroscience (2006) [Pubmed]
  19. Expression of neuronal markers during NTera2/cloneD1 differentiation by cell aggregation method. Megiorni, F., Mora, B., Indovina, P., Mazzilli, M.C. Neurosci. Lett. (2005) [Pubmed]
  20. Differential actions of the proneural genes encoding Mash1 and neurogenins in Nurr1-induced dopamine neuron differentiation. Park, C.H., Kang, J.S., Kim, J.S., Chung, S., Koh, J.Y., Yoon, E.H., Jo, A.Y., Chang, M.Y., Koh, H.C., Hwang, S., Suh-Kim, H., Lee, Y.S., Kim, K.S., Lee, S.H. J. Cell. Sci. (2006) [Pubmed]
  21. Roles of bHLH genes in neural stem cell differentiation. Kageyama, R., Ohtsuka, T., Hatakeyama, J., Ohsawa, R. Exp. Cell Res. (2005) [Pubmed]
  22. Polymorphisms in the neurogenin 3 gene (NEUROG) and their relation to altered insulin secretion and diabetes in the Danish Caucasian population. Jensen, J.N., Hansen, L., Ekstrøm, C.T., Pociot, F., Nerup, J., Hansen, T., Pedersen, O. Diabetologia (2001) [Pubmed]
  23. Molecular mechanisms controlling cortical gliogenesis. Sauvageot, C.M., Stiles, C.D. Curr. Opin. Neurobiol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  24. Immunoblotting detection of so-called 'antikeratin antibodies': a new assay for the diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis. Gomès-Daudrix, V., Sebbag, M., Girbal, E., Vincent, C., Simon, M., Rakotoarivony, J., Abbal, M., Fournié, B., Serre, G. Ann. Rheum. Dis. (1994) [Pubmed]
  25. Evaluation of anti-citrullinated filaggrin antibodies as hallmarks for the diagnosis of rheumatic diseases. Dubucquoi, S., Solau-Gervais, E., Lefranc, D., Marguerie, L., Sibilia, J., Goetz, J., Dutoit, V., Fauchais, A.L., Hachulla, E., Flipo, R.M., Prin, L. Ann. Rheum. Dis. (2004) [Pubmed]
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