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Gene Review

Tagln  -  transgelin

Mus musculus

Synonyms: Actin-associated protein p27, SM-22 alpha, SM22, SM22-alpha, Sm22, ...
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Disease relevance of Tagln


High impact information on Tagln


Biological context of Tagln

  • Paralogous sm22alpha (Tagln) genes map to mouse chromosomes 1 and 9: further evidence for a paralogous relationship [4].
  • We also found that Ras-dependent and Ras-independent mechanisms can cause the down-regulation of transgelin in human breast and colon carcinoma cells lines and patient-derived tumor samples [1].
  • SM22 alpha is a 6.2-kilobase single copy gene composed of five exons [5].
  • Transient transfection experiments demonstrated that 441 base pairs of SM22 alpha 5'-flanking sequence was necessary and sufficient to program high level transcription of a luciferase reporter gene in both primary rat aortic SMCs and A7r5 cells [5].
  • Both a randomly integrated transgene [SM-CreER(T2)(tg)] and a transgene that has been "knocked in" into the endogenous SM22 locus [SM-CreER(T2)(ki)] were expressed in smooth muscle-containing tissues [6].

Anatomical context of Tagln

  • SM22alpha (TAGLN) is one of the earliest markers of differentiated smooth muscle, being expressed exclusively in the smooth muscle cells of adult tissues and transiently in embryonic skeletal and cardiac tissues [4].
  • SM22 alpha mRNA is expressed at high levels in the aorta, uterus, lung, and intestine, and in primary cultures of rat aortic SMCs, and the SMC line, A7r5 [5].
  • Transgelin was identified previously as a protein whose expression was lost in virally transformed cell lines [1].
  • Both cultures expressed stem cell marker CD34 antigen but not protein tyrosine phosphatase, receptor type c. TA and PD cells expressed smooth-muscle cell markers smoothelin and transgelin [7].
  • To clarify their relationship we have cloned and sequenced the cDNA encoding Tg from cultures of rat embryo fibroblasts [8].

Associations of Tagln with chemical compounds

  • We have generated transgenic mouse lines expressing a tamoxifen-activated Cre recombinase, CreER(T2), under the control of the smooth muscle-specific SM22 promoter [6].
  • A functional role for Tg is unlikely to directly involve Ca2+ since it neither contains a functional EF hand nor binds 45Ca2+ [8].
  • Cultured VSMC from SM22-PAI+ mice were more resistant to apoptosis induced by tumor necrosis factor plus phorbol myristate acetate or palmitic acid compared with VSMC from negative control littermates [9].
  • These markers include Calreticulin, Transgelin, Serotransferrin, Triphosphate isomerase and Carbonic anhydrase II [10].

Regulatory relationships of Tagln

  • Co-culture with EC or TGFbeta treatment stimulated activity of a 441-bp SM22-alpha promoter to about the same extent, whereas co-culture induced the activity of a 3.7-kb promoter to about twice that of TGBbeta [11].

Other interactions of Tagln

  • We observed that moderate copy number incorporation (four copies) of the A3AR gene driven by the SM22 alpha promoter is sufficient to induce lethality at an early stage of embryo development [12].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Tagln


  1. Loss of transgelin in breast and colon tumors and in RIE-1 cells by Ras deregulation of gene expression through Raf-independent pathways. Shields, J.M., Rogers-Graham, K., Der, C.J. J. Biol. Chem. (2002) [Pubmed]
  2. Mapping of the rat SM22 gene to chromosome 8q24: a candidate for high blood pressure and cardiac hypertrophy. Koike, G., Miano, J.M., Vanvooren, P., Shiozawa, M., Szpirer, C., Jacob, H.J. Mamm. Genome (1998) [Pubmed]
  3. SM22 alpha, a marker of adult smooth muscle, is expressed in multiple myogenic lineages during embryogenesis. Li, L., Miano, J.M., Cserjesi, P., Olson, E.N. Circ. Res. (1996) [Pubmed]
  4. Paralogous sm22alpha (Tagln) genes map to mouse chromosomes 1 and 9: further evidence for a paralogous relationship. Stanier, P., Abu-Hayyeh, S., Murdoch, J.N., Eddleston, J., Copp, A.J. Genomics (1998) [Pubmed]
  5. Structure and expression of a smooth muscle cell-specific gene, SM22 alpha. Solway, J., Seltzer, J., Samaha, F.F., Kim, S., Alger, L.E., Niu, Q., Morrisey, E.E., Ip, H.S., Parmacek, M.S. J. Biol. Chem. (1995) [Pubmed]
  6. Temporally controlled somatic mutagenesis in smooth muscle. Kühbandner, S., Brummer, S., Metzger, D., Chambon, P., Hofmann, F., Feil, R. Genesis (2000) [Pubmed]
  7. Evidence that osteogenic progenitor cells in the human tunica albuginea may originate from stem cells: implications for peyronie disease. Vernet, D., Nolazco, G., Cantini, L., Magee, T.R., Qian, A., Rajfer, J., Gonzalez-Cadavid, N.F. Biol. Reprod. (2005) [Pubmed]
  8. Fibroblast transgelin and smooth muscle SM22alpha are the same protein, the expression of which is down-regulated in many cell lines. Lawson, D., Harrison, M., Shapland, C. Cell Motil. Cytoskeleton (1997) [Pubmed]
  9. Inhibition of apoptosis and caspase-3 in vascular smooth muscle cells by plasminogen activator inhibitor type-1. Chen, Y., Kelm, R.J., Budd, R.C., Sobel, B.E., Schneider, D.J. J. Cell. Biochem. (2004) [Pubmed]
  10. Aberrant crypt foci. Alrawi, S.J., Schiff, M., Carroll, R.E., Dayton, M., Gibbs, J.F., Kulavlat, M., Tan, D., Berman, K., Stoler, D.L., Anderson, G.R. Anticancer Res. (2006) [Pubmed]
  11. Endothelial-mesenchymal interactions in vitro reveal molecular mechanisms of smooth muscle/pericyte differentiation. Ding, R., Darland, D.C., Parmacek, M.S., D'Amore, P.A. Stem Cells Dev. (2004) [Pubmed]
  12. Overexpression of A3 adenosine receptors in smooth, cardiac, and skeletal muscle is lethal to embryos. Zhao, Z., Yaar, R., Ladd, D., Cataldo, L.M., Ravid, K. Microvasc. Res. (2002) [Pubmed]
  13. Expression cloning identifies transgelin (SM22) as a novel repressor of 92-kDa type IV collagenase (MMP-9) expression. Nair, R.R., Solway, J., Boyd, D.D. J. Biol. Chem. (2006) [Pubmed]
  14. Loss of transgelin in repeated bouts of ulcerative colitis-induced colon carcinogenesis. Yeo, M., Kim, D.K., Park, H.J., Oh, T.Y., Kim, J.H., Cho, S.W., Paik, Y.K., Hahm, K.B. Proteomics (2006) [Pubmed]
  15. Identification of the Schistosoma japonicum 22.6-kDa antigen as a major target of the human IgE response: similarity of IgE-binding epitopes to allergen peptides. Santiago, M.L., Hafalla, J.C., Kurtis, J.D., Aligui, G.L., Wiest, P.M., Olveda, R.M., Olds, G.R., Dunne, D.W., Ramirez, B.L. Int. Arch. Allergy Immunol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  16. Detection of active infection of Sf9 insect cells by recombinant baculoviruses. Mariani, S.M., Krammer, P.H. J. Virol. Methods (1997) [Pubmed]
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