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Gene Review

SYP  -  synaptophysin

Bos taurus

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High impact information on SYP

  • We have found that the intrinsic membrane proteins synaptophysin and p65 had an identical distribution and were restricted to low density fractions of the gradient which contained numerous clear microvesicles with a size range the same as that of small synaptic vesicles [1].
  • In contrast, the SV proteins synaptophysin, SV2, and p29 were restricted to the SV-containing fractions [2].
  • Synaptotagmin bead-immunoisolated organelles from these tissues primarily consisted of SVs but contained occasionally larger structures reminiscent of LDCVs that were absent from vesicle populations immunoisolated with a synaptophysin antibody [2].
  • In contrast, vesicles immunoisolated with synaptophysin beads did not contain detectable levels of NPY [2].
  • NCS-1 was present in both cytosolic and membrane fractions including purified chromaffin granules, and in immunofluorescence, its distribution overlapped with peripheral punctate staining seen with the synaptic-like microvesicle marker synaptophysin in PC12 cells [3].

Biological context of SYP

  • Its primary structure deduced from rat and human complementary DNA sequences predicts that synaptophysin contains four transmembrane regions and a carboxyl-terminal domain having a novel repetitive structure [4].
  • Sequence comparisons between bovine, rat, and human synaptophysin revealed that only the intravesicular loops showed a significant number of amino acid substitutions (22%), while the transmembrane regions and cytoplasmic sequences were highly conserved (3% substitutions) [4].
  • However, the EP10 epitope is of interest, as this binding site does not appear to be present in rat or bovine synaptophysin [5].
  • Synaptophysin was shown to undergo very fast phosphorylation, together with another triplet protein of approximately 18 kDa [6].
  • In addition, scinderin antisense treatment did not alter the expression of proteins involved in vesicle-plasma membrane fusion, such as synaptophysin, synaptotagmin or syntaxin, indicating a lack of effects on the fusion machinery components [7].

Anatomical context of SYP


Associations of SYP with chemical compounds

  • In contrast, the latter showed a rather bimodal distribution coinciding with synaptophysin and dopamine beta-hydroxylase [6].
  • Both noradrenaline and adrenaline showed a parallel distribution with synaptophysin, suggesting their presence in synaptic-like microvesicles [6].
  • Western immunoblot analysis of Triton X-100 extracts from rat brain showed that polyclonal polyspecific anti-synaptin antibodies and monoclonal antibody SY38 against synaptophysin both reacted with a band of 38 kDa [10].

Other interactions of SYP


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of SYP


  1. Microvesicles of the neurohypophysis are biochemically related to small synaptic vesicles of presynaptic nerve terminals. Navone, F., Di Gioia, G., Jahn, R., Browning, M., Greengard, P., De Camilli, P. J. Cell Biol. (1989) [Pubmed]
  2. Synaptotagmin: a membrane constituent of neuropeptide-containing large dense-core vesicles. Walch-Solimena, C., Takei, K., Marek, K.L., Midyett, K., Südhof, T.C., De Camilli, P., Jahn, R. J. Neurosci. (1993) [Pubmed]
  3. Neuronal Ca2+ sensor 1, the mammalian homologue of frequenin, is expressed in chromaffin and PC12 cells and regulates neurosecretion from dense-core granules. McFerran, B.W., Graham, M.E., Burgoyne, R.D. J. Biol. Chem. (1998) [Pubmed]
  4. Transmembrane topography and evolutionary conservation of synaptophysin. Johnston, P.A., Jahn, R., Südhof, T.C. J. Biol. Chem. (1989) [Pubmed]
  5. Characterization of a synaptic antigen of interest in neuropsychiatric illness. Honer, W.G., Kaufmann, C.A., Davies, P. Biol. Psychiatry (1992) [Pubmed]
  6. Catecholamines are present in a synaptic-like microvesicle-enriched fraction from bovine adrenal medulla. Annaert, W.G., Llona, I., Backer, A.C., Jacob, W.A., De Potter, W.P. J. Neurochem. (1993) [Pubmed]
  7. An antisense oligodeoxynucleotide targeted to chromaffin cell scinderin gene decreased scinderin levels and inhibited depolarization-induced cortical F-actin disassembly and exocytosis. Lejen, T., Skolnik, K., Rosé, S.D., Marcu, M.G., Elzagallaai, A., Trifaró, J.M. J. Neurochem. (2001) [Pubmed]
  8. Cholecystokinin induces cerebral vasodilatation via presynaptic CCK2 receptors: new implications for the pathophysiology of panic. Sánchez-Fernández, C., González, C., Mercer, L.D., Beart, P.M., Ruiz-Gayo, M., Fernández-Alfonso, M.S. J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. (2003) [Pubmed]
  9. In adrenal medulla synaptophysin (protein p38) is present in chromaffin granules and in a special vesicle population. Obendorf, D., Schwarzenbrunner, U., Fischer-Colbrie, R., Laslop, A., Winkler, H. J. Neurochem. (1988) [Pubmed]
  10. Demonstration of immunochemical identity between the synaptic vesicle proteins synaptin and synaptophysin/p38. Gaardsvoll, H., Obendorf, D., Winkler, H., Bock, E. FEBS Lett. (1988) [Pubmed]
  11. Pattern of repeating aromatic residues in synexin. Similarity to the cytoplasmic domain of synaptophysin. Creutz, C.E., Snyder, S.L., Husted, L.D., Beggerly, L.K., Fox, J.W. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (1988) [Pubmed]
  12. Simultaneous purification of the neuroproteins synapsin I and synaptophysin. Llona, I., Annaert, W.G., De Potter, W.P. J. Chromatogr. (1992) [Pubmed]
  13. Differences in the composition of chromaffin granules in adrenaline and noradrenaline containing cells of bovine adrenal medulla. Weiss, C., Cahill, A.L., Laslop, A., Fischer-Colbrie, R., Perlman, R.L., Winkler, H. Neurosci. Lett. (1996) [Pubmed]
  14. Microvesicles isolated from bovine posterior pituitary accumulate norepinephrine. Moriyama, Y., Yamamoto, A., Yamada, H., Tashiro, Y., Tomochika, K., Takahashi, M., Maeda, M., Futai, M. J. Biol. Chem. (1995) [Pubmed]
  15. Subcellular distribution of 65,000 calmodulin-binding protein (p65) and synaptophysin (p38) in adrenal medulla. Fournier, S., Novas, M.L., Trifaró, J.M. J. Neurochem. (1989) [Pubmed]
  16. Differential ultrastructural distribution of synapsin and synaptophysin proximal to a ligation in bovine splenic nerve. Quatacker, J., Partoens, P., De Potter, W. Brain Res. (1998) [Pubmed]
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