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Gene Review

Syp  -  synaptophysin

Rattus norvegicus

Synonyms: Major synaptic vesicle protein p38, Synaptophysin
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Disease relevance of Syp


Psychiatry related information on Syp


High impact information on Syp

  • In addition, potentiation is accompanied by a rapid and long-lasting increase in the number of clusters of the presynaptic protein synaptophysin and the number of sites at which synaptophysin and GluR1 are colocalized [11].
  • Calcium-dependent transmitter secretion reconstituted in Xenopus oocytes: requirement for synaptophysin [12].
  • The structure of synaptophysin suggests that the protein may function as a channel in the synaptic vesicle membrane, with the carboxyl terminus serving as a binding site for cellular factors [13].
  • The second group consists of stationary nonsynaptic scaffold complexes that mainly contain neuroligin-1, can recruit synaptophysin-containing axonal transport vesicles, and are readily transformed to functional presynaptic contacts that recycle the vital dye FM 4-64 [14].
  • Indeed, Rab5a co-immunoisolated with synaptophysin-containing vesicles, and antibodies against Rab5a labeled synaptic vesicle-like structures in nerve terminals [15].

Chemical compound and disease context of Syp


Biological context of Syp

  • We propose that synaptophysin I has multiple roles in neurotransmitter release, regulating VAMP2 availability for the soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptor complex and possibly participating in the late steps of exocytosis [20].
  • GTP binding releases dynamin from synaptophysin, possibly serving to regulate dynamin selfassembly during endocytosis [21].
  • To investigate the molecular interactions of synaptophysin I and vesicle-associated membrane protein 2 (VAMP2)/synaptobrevin II during exocytosis, we have used time-lapse videomicroscopy to measure fluorescence resonance energy transfer in live neurons [20].
  • Synaptophysin is a major glycoprotein of Mr approximately 38,000 (in deglycosylated form: Mr approximately 34,000) characteristic of a certain class of small (30-80 nm diameter) neurosecretory vesicles, including presynaptic vesicles, but also vesicles of various neuroendocrine cells of both neuronal and epithelial phenotype [22].
  • The deduced amino acid sequence, which was partly confirmed by comparison with sequences of two tryptic peptides obtained from purified synaptophysin, revealed four hydrophobic regions of 24 amino acids each, which are characterized, according to conformation prediction analyses, by marked alpha-helicity [22].

Anatomical context of Syp


Associations of Syp with chemical compounds


Physical interactions of Syp


Enzymatic interactions of Syp


Co-localisations of Syp


Regulatory relationships of Syp


Other interactions of Syp


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Syp


  1. Dendritic and synaptic pathology in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. Zhu, B., Luo, L., Moore, G.R., Paty, D.W., Cynader, M.S. Am. J. Pathol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  2. Immunocytochemical analysis of synaptic proteins provides new insights into diabetes-mediated plasticity in the rat hippocampus. Grillo, C.A., Piroli, G.G., Wood, G.E., Reznikov, L.R., McEwen, B.S., Reagan, L.P. Neuroscience (2005) [Pubmed]
  3. Temperature effect on immunostaining of microtubule-associated protein 2 and synaptophysin after 30 minutes of forebrain ischemia in rat. Miyazawa, T., Bonnekoh, P., Hossmann, K.A. Acta Neuropathol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  4. Increase of GAP-43 in the rat cerebellum following unilateral striatal 6-OHDA lesion. Perović, M., Mladenović, A., Rakić, L., Ruzdijić, S., Kanazir, S. Synapse (2005) [Pubmed]
  5. Selective vulnerability of hippocampal CA3 neurons to hypoxia after mild concussion in the rat. Nawashiro, H., Shima, K., Chigasaki, H. Neurol. Res. (1995) [Pubmed]
  6. 5-HT1A agonist and dexamethasone reversal of para-chloroamphetamine induced loss of MAP-2 and synaptophysin immunoreactivity in adult rat brain. Azmitia, E.C., Rubinstein, V.J., Strafaci, J.A., Rios, J.C., Whitaker-Azmitia, P.M. Brain Res. (1995) [Pubmed]
  7. Circuit-specific alterations in hippocampal synaptophysin immunoreactivity predict spatial learning impairment in aged rats. Smith, T.D., Adams, M.M., Gallagher, M., Morrison, J.H., Rapp, P.R. J. Neurosci. (2000) [Pubmed]
  8. Striatal synaptophysin levels are not indicative of dopaminergic supersensitivity. Marin, C., Tolosa, E. Neuropharmacology (1997) [Pubmed]
  9. Stress (hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis) and pain response in male rats exposed lifelong to high vs. low phytoestrogen diets. Lephart, E.D., Galindo, E., Bu, L.H. Neurosci. Lett. (2003) [Pubmed]
  10. Synaptophysin and GAP-43 proteins in efferent fibers of the inner ear during postnatal development. Knipper, M., Zimmermann, U., Rohbock, K., Köpschall, I., Zenner, H.P. Brain Res. Dev. Brain Res. (1995) [Pubmed]
  11. Rapid increase in clusters of presynaptic proteins at onset of long-lasting potentiation. Antonova, I., Arancio, O., Trillat, A.C., Wang, H.G., Zablow, L., Udo, H., Kandel, E.R., Hawkins, R.D. Science (2001) [Pubmed]
  12. Calcium-dependent transmitter secretion reconstituted in Xenopus oocytes: requirement for synaptophysin. Alder, J., Lu, B., Valtorta, F., Greengard, P., Poo, M.M. Science (1992) [Pubmed]
  13. A synaptic vesicle protein with a novel cytoplasmic domain and four transmembrane regions. Südhof, T.C., Lottspeich, F., Greengard, P., Mehl, E., Jahn, R. Science (1987) [Pubmed]
  14. A preformed complex of postsynaptic proteins is involved in excitatory synapse development. Gerrow, K., Romorini, S., Nabi, S.M., Colicos, M.A., Sala, C., El-Husseini, A. Neuron (2006) [Pubmed]
  15. The involvement of the small GTP-binding protein Rab5a in neuronal endocytosis. de Hoop, M.J., Huber, L.A., Stenmark, H., Williamson, E., Zerial, M., Parton, R.G., Dotti, C.G. Neuron (1994) [Pubmed]
  16. A 60-kilodalton protein in rat hepatoma cells overexpressing insulin receptor was tyrosine phosphorylated and associated with Syp, phophatidylinositol 3-kinase, and Grb2 in an insulin-dependent manner. Zhang-Sun, G., Yang, C., Viallet, J., Feng, G., Bergeron, J.J., Posner, B.I. Endocrinology (1996) [Pubmed]
  17. Synaptophysin expression in "ependymal tumors" induced by ethyl-nitrosourea in rats. Vaquero, J., Coca, S., Zurita, M., Oya, S., Arias, A., Moreno, M., Morales, C. Am. J. Pathol. (1992) [Pubmed]
  18. Acute ethanol intoxication in a model of traumatic brain injury: the protective role of moderate doses demonstrated by immunoreactivity of synaptophysin in hippocampal neurons. Türeci, E., Dashti, R., Tanriverdi, T., Sanus, G.Z., Oz, B., Uzan, M. Neurol. Res. (2004) [Pubmed]
  19. Effects of S-nitroso-cysteine on proteins that regulate exocytosis in PC12 cells: inhibitory effects on translocation of synaptophysin and ADP-ribosylation of GTP-binding proteins. Naganuma, T., Maekawa, M., Murayama, T., Nomura, Y. Jpn. J. Pharmacol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  20. Fluorescence resonance energy transfer detection of synaptophysin I and vesicle-associated membrane protein 2 interactions during exocytosis from single live synapses. Pennuto, M., Dunlap, D., Contestabile, A., Benfenati, F., Valtorta, F. Mol. Biol. Cell (2002) [Pubmed]
  21. Ca2+-dependent formation of a dynamin-synaptophysin complex: potential role in synaptic vesicle endocytosis. Daly, C., Ziff, E.B. J. Biol. Chem. (2002) [Pubmed]
  22. Synaptophysin: molecular organization and mRNA expression as determined from cloned cDNA. Leube, R.E., Kaiser, P., Seiter, A., Zimbelmann, R., Franke, W.W., Rehm, H., Knaus, P., Prior, P., Betz, H., Reinke, H. EMBO J. (1987) [Pubmed]
  23. Cognition- and anxiety-related behavior, synaptophysin and MAP2 immunoreactivity in the adult rat treated with a single course of antenatal betamethasone. Bruschettini, M., van den Hove, D.L., Timmers, S., Welling, M., Steinbusch, H.P., Prickaerts, J., Gazzolo, D., Blanco, C.E., Steinbusch, H.W. Pediatr. Res. (2006) [Pubmed]
  24. Activity-dependent changes in synaptophysin immunoreactivity in hippocampus, piriform cortex, and entorhinal cortex of the rat. Li, S., Reinprecht, I., Fahnestock, M., Racine, R.J. Neuroscience (2002) [Pubmed]
  25. Synaptophysin immunogold labelling of synapses decreases in dentate gyrus of the hippocampus of aged rats. Davies, H.A., Kelly, A., Dhanrajan, T.M., Lynch, M.A., Rodríguez, J.J., Stewart, M.G. Brain Res. (2003) [Pubmed]
  26. P29: a novel tyrosine-phosphorylated membrane protein present in small clear vesicles of neurons and endocrine cells. Baumert, M., Takei, K., Hartinger, J., Burger, P.M., Fischer von Mollard, G., Maycox, P.R., De Camilli, P., Jahn, R. J. Cell Biol. (1990) [Pubmed]
  27. Are neuronal markers and neocortical graft-host interface influenced by housing conditions in rats with cortical infarct cavity? Zeng, J., Zhao, L.R., Nordborg, C., Mattsson, B., Johansson, B.B. Brain Res. Bull. (1999) [Pubmed]
  28. Polychlorinated biphenyls alter expression of alpha-synuclein, synaptophysin and parkin in the rat brain. Malkiewicz, K., Mohammed, R., Folkesson, R., Winblad, B., Szutowski, M., Benedikz, E. Toxicol. Lett. (2006) [Pubmed]
  29. The response of synaptophysin and microtubule-associated protein 1 to restraint stress in rat hippocampus and its modulation by venlafaxine. Xu, H., He, J., Richardson, J.S., Li, X.M. J. Neurochem. (2004) [Pubmed]
  30. Vesicle-associated membrane protein-2 (synaptobrevin-2) forms a complex with synaptophysin. Washbourne, P., Schiavo, G., Montecucco, C. Biochem. J. (1995) [Pubmed]
  31. Synaptobrevin binding to synaptophysin: a potential mechanism for controlling the exocytotic fusion machine. Edelmann, L., Hanson, P.I., Chapman, E.R., Jahn, R. EMBO J. (1995) [Pubmed]
  32. Ultrastructural localization of B-50/growth-associated protein-43 to anterogradely transported synaptophysin-positive and calcitonin gene-related peptide-negative vesicles in the regenerating rat sciatic nerve. Verkade, P., Verkleij, A.J., Annaert, W.G., Gispen, W.H., Oestreicher, A.B. Neuroscience (1996) [Pubmed]
  33. Acetylcholine receptor aggregation at nerve-muscle contacts in mammalian cultures: induction by ventral spinal cord neurons is specific to axons. Dutton, E.K., Uhm, C.S., Samuelsson, S.J., Schaffner, A.E., Fitzgerald, S.C., Daniels, M.P. J. Neurosci. (1995) [Pubmed]
  34. The C-terminal transmembrane region of synaptobrevin binds synaptophysin from adult synaptic vesicles. Yelamanchili, S.V., Reisinger, C., Becher, A., Sikorra, S., Bigalke, H., Binz, T., Ahnert-Hilger, G. Eur. J. Cell Biol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  35. Mechanisms underlying the neuronal calcium sensor-1-evoked enhancement of exocytosis in PC12 cells. Koizumi, S., Rosa, P., Willars, G.B., Challiss, R.A., Taverna, E., Francolini, M., Bootman, M.D., Lipp, P., Inoue, K., Roder, J., Jeromin, A. J. Biol. Chem. (2002) [Pubmed]
  36. Synaptophysin is targeted to similar microvesicles in CHO and PC12 cells. Johnston, P.A., Cameron, P.L., Stukenbrok, H., Jahn, R., De Camilli, P., Südhof, T.C. EMBO J. (1989) [Pubmed]
  37. Stimulus-dependent phosphorylation of MacMARCKS, a protein kinase C substrate, in nerve termini and PC12 cells. Chang, S., Hemmings, H.C., Aderem, A. J. Biol. Chem. (1996) [Pubmed]
  38. Localization of the glutamate receptor subunit GluR1 on the surface of living and within cultured hippocampal neurons. Richmond, S.A., Irving, A.J., Molnar, E., McIlhinney, R.A., Michelangeli, F., Henley, J.M., Collingridge, G.L. Neuroscience (1996) [Pubmed]
  39. Brain derived neurotrophic factor induces a rapid upregulation of synaptophysin and tau proteins via the neurotrophin receptor TrkB in rat cerebellar granule cells. Coffey, E.T., Akerman, K.E., Courtney, M.J. Neurosci. Lett. (1997) [Pubmed]
  40. Estrogen enhances depolarization-induced glutamate release through activation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and mitogen-activated protein kinase in cultured hippocampal neurons. Yokomaku, D., Numakawa, T., Numakawa, Y., Suzuki, S., Matsumoto, T., Adachi, N., Nishio, C., Taguchi, T., Hatanaka, H. Mol. Endocrinol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  41. Postnatal development of the glutamate vesicular transporter VGLUT1 in rat cerebral cortex. Minelli, A., Edwards, R.H., Manzoni, T., Conti, F. Brain Res. Dev. Brain Res. (2003) [Pubmed]
  42. Isolation of a potential neural stem cell line from the internal capsule of an adult transgenic rat brain. Kilty, I.C., Barraclough, R., Schmidt, G., Rudland, P.S. J. Neurochem. (1999) [Pubmed]
  43. Compartmental organization of the olfactory bulb glomerulus. Kasowski, H.J., Kim, H., Greer, C.A. J. Comp. Neurol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  44. Cellugyrin induces biogenesis of synaptic-like microvesicles in PC12 cells. Belfort, G.M., Bakirtzi, K., Kandror, K.V. J. Biol. Chem. (2005) [Pubmed]
  45. Evidence for a dense and intimate innervation of the bone tissue, including glutamate-containing fibers. Serre, C.M., Farlay, D., Delmas, P.D., Chenu, C. Bone (1999) [Pubmed]
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