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Gene Review

SYT1  -  synaptotagmin I

Bos taurus

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Disease relevance of SYT1

  • The large cytoplasmic domain contains two C2 motifs, each similar to the Ca2+ and phospholipid binding domain of protein kinase C. To study the membrane binding and aggregating properties of these C2 domains, three recombinant fragments of rat synaptotagmin I were expressed in Escherichia coli and purified [1].
  • HTLV-I encoded Tax in association with NF-kappa B precursor p105 enhances nuclear localization of NF-kappa B p50 and p65 in transfected cells [2].
  • These results are consistent with the view that p65 is the precursor of gag gene-derived core proteins of BLV [3].
  • Furthermore, when expressed in the rat pheochromocytoma cell line PC12 bovine synaptotagmin I-DeltaC2B is largely absent from dense core granules and synaptic-like microvesicles [4].

High impact information on SYT1


Biological context of SYT1


Anatomical context of SYT1


Associations of SYT1 with chemical compounds

  • Synaptotagmin contains two divergent but conserved C2 domains that can act independently in calcium-triggered phospholipid binding [8].
  • Casein kinase II phosphorylation of many substrates is strongly stimulated by the addition of polylysine, but phosphorylation of synaptotagmin I by casein kinase II is not [9].
  • Synaptotagmin I is one of the major substrates in brain for casein kinase II, which phosphorylates synaptotagmin at a single threonine [9].
  • In recombinant proteins, removal of the lysine-rich sequence of synaptotagmin I makes its phosphorylation dependent on exogenous polylysine, suggesting that the lysine-rich sequence in synaptotagmin serves as an endogenous polylysine stimulation signal for casein kinase II [9].
  • The bovine homologue of p65, a calmodulin-binding protein located in the membranes of synaptic vesicles and endocrine secretory granules, has been studied by the use of monoclonal antibodies directed against this antigen and against dopamine beta-mono-oxygenase [10].

Other interactions of SYT1


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of SYT1


  1. Synergistic membrane interactions of the two C2 domains of synaptotagmin. Damer, C.K., Creutz, C.E. J. Biol. Chem. (1994) [Pubmed]
  2. HTLV-I encoded Tax in association with NF-kappa B precursor p105 enhances nuclear localization of NF-kappa B p50 and p65 in transfected cells. Watanabe, M., Muramatsu, M., Hirai, H., Suzuki, T., Fujisawa, J., Yoshida, M., Arai, K., Arai, N. Oncogene (1993) [Pubmed]
  3. Detection of a precursor-like protein of bovine leukaemia virus structural polypeptides in purified virions. Gupta, P., Ferrer, J.F. J. Gen. Virol. (1980) [Pubmed]
  4. Synaptotagmin I-DeltaC2B. A novel synaptotagmin isoform with a single C2 domain in the bovine adrenal medulla. Hewitt, E.W., Tao, J.X., Strasser, J.E., Cutler, D.F., Dean, G.E. Biochim. Biophys. Acta (2002) [Pubmed]
  5. A protein assembly-disassembly pathway in vitro that may correspond to sequential steps of synaptic vesicle docking, activation, and fusion. Söllner, T., Bennett, M.K., Whiteheart, S.W., Scheller, R.H., Rothman, J.E. Cell (1993) [Pubmed]
  6. Binding of synaptotagmin to the alpha-latrotoxin receptor implicates both in synaptic vesicle exocytosis. Petrenko, A.G., Perin, M.S., Davletov, B.A., Ushkaryov, Y.A., Geppert, M., Südhof, T.C. Nature (1991) [Pubmed]
  7. Nuclear factor-kappa B interacts functionally with the platelet-derived growth factor B-chain shear-stress response element in vascular endothelial cells exposed to fluid shear stress. Khachigian, L.M., Resnick, N., Gimbrone, M.A., Collins, T. J. Clin. Invest. (1995) [Pubmed]
  8. Mechanism of calcium-independent synaptotagmin binding to target SNAREs. Rickman, C., Davletov, B. J. Biol. Chem. (2003) [Pubmed]
  9. Phosphorylation of synaptotagmin I by casein kinase II. Davletov, B., Sontag, J.M., Hata, Y., Petrenko, A.G., Fykse, E.M., Jahn, R., Südhof, T.C. J. Biol. Chem. (1993) [Pubmed]
  10. Glycosylation and transmembrane topography of bovine chromaffin granule p65. Tugal, H.B., van Leeuwen, F., Apps, D.K., Haywood, J., Phillips, J.H. Biochem. J. (1991) [Pubmed]
  11. Distinct roles of C2A and C2B domains of synaptotagmin in the regulation of exocytosis in adrenal chromaffin cells. Ohara-Imaizumi, M., Fukuda, M., Niinobe, M., Misonou, H., Ikeda, K., Murakami, T., Kawasaki, M., Mikoshiba, K., Kumakura, K. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1997) [Pubmed]
  12. Interaction of synaptotagmin with the cytoplasmic domains of neurexins. Hata, Y., Davletov, B., Petrenko, A.G., Jahn, R., Südhof, T.C. Neuron (1993) [Pubmed]
  13. Synaptotagmin: a membrane constituent of neuropeptide-containing large dense-core vesicles. Walch-Solimena, C., Takei, K., Marek, K.L., Midyett, K., Südhof, T.C., De Camilli, P., Jahn, R. J. Neurosci. (1993) [Pubmed]
  14. Presence of syntaxin 1A in secretory granules of chromaffin cells and interaction with chromogranins A and B. Yoo, S.H., You, S.H., Huh, Y.H. FEBS Lett. (2005) [Pubmed]
  15. Characterization of vesicular membrane-bound alpha-SNAP and NSF in adrenal chromaffin cells. Banaschewski, C., Höhne-Zell, B., Ovtscharoff, W., Gratzl, M. Biochemistry (1998) [Pubmed]
  16. Interaction of Ash/Grb-2 via its SH3 domains with neuron-specific p150 and p65. Miura, K., Miki, H., Shimazaki, K., Kawai, N., Takenawa, T. Biochem. J. (1996) [Pubmed]
  17. SNAP-25 is present in a SNARE complex in adrenal chromaffin cells. Roth, D., Burgoyne, R.D. FEBS Lett. (1994) [Pubmed]
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