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Gene Review

Syp  -  synaptophysin

Mus musculus

Synonyms: A230093K24Rik, AI848995, BM89 antigen, Major synaptic vesicle protein p38, Syn, ...
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Disease relevance of Syp


Psychiatry related information on Syp


High impact information on Syp


Chemical compound and disease context of Syp

  • AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: We investigated the effect of SB 203580, a pharmacological inhibitor of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), on cardiac inflammation, cardiac fibrosis, and left ventricular function using an animal model of diabetic cardiomyopathy [11].
  • This is also the first evidence that SYN, a presynaptic protein involved in neurotransmitter release, is regulated by E2 in the adult brain, and that apoE is necessary for the induction of apoJ mRNA by E2 in brain injury [12].

Biological context of Syp


Anatomical context of Syp

  • We and others have thus identified a cDNA in various nonneuroendocrine cell types of rat and human that is related to synaptophysin, one of the major synaptic vesicle membrane proteins, which we termed pantophysin [17].
  • Pantophysin is a ubiquitously expressed synaptophysin homologue and defines constitutive transport vesicles [17].
  • Using cell fractionation in combination with immunoisolation, these vesicles are enriched in a light fraction and shown to contain the cellular vSNARE cellubrevin and the ubiquitous SCAMPs in epithelial cells and synaptophysin in neuroendocrine or cDNA-transfected nonneuroendocrine cells and neuroendocrine tissues [17].
  • Upon overexpression of synaptophysin in PC12 cells, it is localized in rapidly sedimenting membranes and practically is not delivered to the SLMVs [13].
  • The number of immunopositive cells in the NSE, NF, and synaptophysin staining within the infarct was progressively reduced, and after 3 to 7 days the immunoreactions were confined to discrete granulomatous structures in the center of the infarct, which otherwise was infested with macrophages [18].

Associations of Syp with chemical compounds


Physical interactions of Syp


Co-localisations of Syp

  • As viewed by confocal microscopy, the immunopositivity for the IFN-gamma R was co-localized with that of the presynaptic marker synaptophysin and with neuronal nitric oxide synthase in the lateral spinal nucleus, whereas only a minor overlap with these molecules was observed in laminae I and II of the dorsal horn [27].

Regulatory relationships of Syp


Other interactions of Syp


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Syp


  1. Prion replication alters the distribution of synaptophysin and caveolin 1 in neuronal lipid rafts. Russelakis-Carneiro, M., Hetz, C., Maundrell, K., Soto, C. Am. J. Pathol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  2. The synaptophysin/synaptobrevin complex dissociates independently of neuroexocytosis. Reisinger, C., Yelamanchili, S.V., Hinz, B., Mitter, D., Becher, A., Bigalke, H., Ahnert-Hilger, G. J. Neurochem. (2004) [Pubmed]
  3. Absence of alpha-syntrophin leads to structurally aberrant neuromuscular synapses deficient in utrophin. Adams, M.E., Kramarcy, N., Krall, S.P., Rossi, S.G., Rotundo, R.L., Sealock, R., Froehner, S.C. J. Cell Biol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  4. P2Y2 receptor activates nerve growth factor/TrkA signaling to enhance neuronal differentiation. Arthur, D.B., Akassoglou, K., Insel, P.A. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2005) [Pubmed]
  5. Persistent activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase in a mouse model of familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis correlates with disease progression. Tortarolo, M., Veglianese, P., Calvaresi, N., Botturi, A., Rossi, C., Giorgini, A., Migheli, A., Bendotti, C. Mol. Cell. Neurosci. (2003) [Pubmed]
  6. Beta-amyloid immunotherapy prevents synaptic degeneration in a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease. Buttini, M., Masliah, E., Barbour, R., Grajeda, H., Motter, R., Johnson-Wood, K., Khan, K., Seubert, P., Freedman, S., Schenk, D., Games, D. J. Neurosci. (2005) [Pubmed]
  7. p38 and a p38-interacting protein are critical for downregulation of E-cadherin during mouse gastrulation. Zohn, I.E., Li, Y., Skolnik, E.Y., Anderson, K.V., Han, J., Niswander, L. Cell (2006) [Pubmed]
  8. Insulin resistance and growth retardation in mice lacking insulin receptor substrate-1. Tamemoto, H., Kadowaki, T., Tobe, K., Yagi, T., Sakura, H., Hayakawa, T., Terauchi, Y., Ueki, K., Kaburagi, Y., Satoh, S. Nature (1994) [Pubmed]
  9. Regulation of gene expression by the small GTPase Rho through the ERK6 (p38 gamma) MAP kinase pathway. Marinissen, M.J., Chiariello, M., Gutkind, J.S. Genes Dev. (2001) [Pubmed]
  10. Tyrosine phosphorylation controls internalization of CTLA-4 by regulating its interaction with clathrin-associated adaptor complex AP-2. Shiratori, T., Miyatake, S., Ohno, H., Nakaseko, C., Isono, K., Bonifacino, J.S., Saito, T. Immunity (1997) [Pubmed]
  11. Inhibition of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase attenuates left ventricular dysfunction by mediating pro-inflammatory cardiac cytokine levels in a mouse model of diabetes mellitus. Westermann, D., Rutschow, S., Van Linthout, S., Linderer, A., Bücker-Gärtner, C., Sobirey, M., Riad, A., Pauschinger, M., Schultheiss, H.P., Tschöpe, C. Diabetologia (2006) [Pubmed]
  12. Increased synaptic sprouting in response to estrogen via an apolipoprotein E-dependent mechanism: implications for Alzheimer's disease. Stone, D.J., Rozovsky, I., Morgan, T.E., Anderson, C.P., Finch, C.E. J. Neurosci. (1998) [Pubmed]
  13. Cellugyrin and synaptogyrin facilitate targeting of synaptophysin to a ubiquitous synaptic vesicle-sized compartment in PC12 cells. Belfort, G.M., Kandror, K.V. J. Biol. Chem. (2003) [Pubmed]
  14. Stimulus-dependent dynamic homo- and heteromultimerization of synaptobrevin/VAMP and synaptophysin. Khvotchev, M.V., Südhof, T.C. Biochemistry (2004) [Pubmed]
  15. Interleukin-1 mediates pathological effects of microglia on tau phosphorylation and on synaptophysin synthesis in cortical neurons through a p38-MAPK pathway. Li, Y., Liu, L., Barger, S.W., Griffin, W.S. J. Neurosci. (2003) [Pubmed]
  16. Synaptophysin regulates activity-dependent synapse formation in cultured hippocampal neurons. Tarsa, L., Goda, Y. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2002) [Pubmed]
  17. Pantophysin is a ubiquitously expressed synaptophysin homologue and defines constitutive transport vesicles. Haass, N.K., Kartenbeck, M.A., Leube, R.E. J. Cell Biol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  18. Correlation between N-acetylaspartate levels and histopathologic changes in cortical infarcts of mice after middle cerebral artery occlusion. Sager, T.N., Hansen, A.J., Laursen, H. J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. (2000) [Pubmed]
  19. Altered interaction and expression of proteins involved in neurosecretion in scrapie-infected GT1-1 cells. Sandberg, M.K., Löw, P. J. Biol. Chem. (2005) [Pubmed]
  20. Time course of response to estradiol replacement in ovariectomized mice: brain apolipoprotein E and synaptophysin transiently increase and glial fibrillary acidic protein is suppressed. McAsey, M.E., Cady, C., Jackson, L.M., Li, M., Randall, S., Nathan, B.P., Struble, R.G. Exp. Neurol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  21. Expression of prostaglandin e2 synthases in mouse postnatal cortical neurons. Echeverria, V., Greenberg, D.L., Doré, S. Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. (2005) [Pubmed]
  22. Tyrosine 425 within the activated erythropoietin receptor binds Syp, reduces the erythropoietin required for Syp tyrosine phosphorylation, and promotes mitogenesis. Tauchi, T., Damen, J.E., Toyama, K., Feng, G.S., Broxmeyer, H.E., Krystal, G. Blood (1996) [Pubmed]
  23. Agrin plays an organizing role in the formation of sympathetic synapses. Gingras, J., Rassadi, S., Cooper, E., Ferns, M. J. Cell Biol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  24. Synaptophysin binds to physophilin, a putative synaptic plasma membrane protein. Thomas, L., Betz, H. J. Cell Biol. (1990) [Pubmed]
  25. The small GTP-binding protein, Rab6p, is associated with both Golgi and post-Golgi synaptophysin-containing membranes during synaptogenesis of hypothalamic neurons in culture. Tixier-Vidal, A., Barret, A., Picart, R., Mayau, V., Vogt, D., Wiedenmann, B., Goud, B. J. Cell. Sci. (1993) [Pubmed]
  26. Synaptophysin-containing microvesicles transport heat-shock protein hsp60 in insulin-secreting beta cells. Brudzynski, K., Martinez, V. Cytotechnology. (1993) [Pubmed]
  27. Interferon-gamma receptors are expressed at synapses in the rat superficial dorsal horn and lateral spinal nucleus. Vikman, K., Robertson, B., Grant, G., Liljeborg, A., Kristensson, K. J. Neurocytol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  28. Rac2 is critical for neutrophil primary granule exocytosis. Abdel-Latif, D., Steward, M., Macdonald, D.L., Francis, G.A., Dinauer, M.C., Lacy, P. Blood (2004) [Pubmed]
  29. The role of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase in IL-1 beta transcription. Baldassare, J.J., Bi, Y., Bellone, C.J. J. Immunol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  30. Cellular stress induces the tyrosine phosphorylation of caveolin-1 (Tyr(14)) via activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase and c-Src kinase. Evidence for caveolae, the actin cytoskeleton, and focal adhesions as mechanical sensors of osmotic stress. Volonté, D., Galbiati, F., Pestell, R.G., Lisanti, M.P. J. Biol. Chem. (2001) [Pubmed]
  31. Heme oxygenase-1 protects pancreatic beta cells from apoptosis caused by various stimuli. Tobiasch, E., Günther, L., Bach, F.H. J. Investig. Med. (2001) [Pubmed]
  32. Expression pattern of synucleins (non-Abeta component of Alzheimer's disease amyloid precursor protein/alpha-synuclein) during murine brain development. Hsu, L.J., Mallory, M., Xia, Y., Veinbergs, I., Hashimoto, M., Yoshimoto, M., Thal, L.J., Saitoh, T., Masliah, E. J. Neurochem. (1998) [Pubmed]
  33. Mice lacking synaptophysin reproduce and form typical synaptic vesicles. Eshkind, L.G., Leube, R.E. Cell Tissue Res. (1995) [Pubmed]
  34. Environmental enrichment results in cortical and subcortical changes in levels of synaptophysin and PSD-95 proteins. Nithianantharajah, J., Levis, H., Murphy, M. Neurobiology of learning and memory. (2004) [Pubmed]
  35. Neurons in the dorsal column white matter of the spinal cord: complex neuropil in an unexpected location. Abbadie, C., Skinner, K., Mitrovic, I., Basbaum, A.I. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1999) [Pubmed]
  36. Secretory function of the vestibular nerve calyx suggested by presence of vesicles, synapsin I, and synaptophysin. Scarfone, E., Demêmes, D., Jahn, R., De Camilli, P., Sans, A. J. Neurosci. (1988) [Pubmed]
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