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Gene Review

SYP  -  synaptophysin

Homo sapiens

Synonyms: MRX96, MRXSYP, Major synaptic vesicle protein p38, Synaptophysin
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Disease relevance of SYP

  • The data suggest that CaN and MAP2, together with SYP, can be useful tools for identifying and characterizing of the central neurocytoma [1].
  • We studied synaptophysin immunohistochemical expression in 35 human liver specimens (normal and different pathological conditions), in rat models of galactosamine hepatitis and carbon tetrachloride-induced cirrhosis, and in freshly isolated rat stellate cells [2].
  • In a frozen chronic hepatitis case (with expected activated hepatic MF and HSC), HSC were negative to synaptophysin, GFAP and NCAM [3].
  • Although synaptophysin has been implicated in neurotransmitter release, and decreased synaptophysin levels have been associated with several neurodegenerative diseases, the molecular mechanism that regulates the degradation of synaptophysin remains unsolved [4].
  • Surface perikaryal labeling for SYN is not restricted to the neoplastic neurons of ganglion cell tumors and should be cautiously interpreted, particularly when neurosurgical material derives from the spinal cord [5].

Psychiatry related information on SYP


High impact information on SYP

  • Topogenesis and sorting of synaptophysin: synthesis of a synaptic vesicle protein from a gene transfected into nonneuroendocrine cells [11].
  • Diverse nonneuroendocrine (non-NE) cells were forced to express synaptophysin (SY), the major and typical transmembrane glycoprotein of small (30-80 nm) neurotransmitter vesicles of NE cells, using microinjection of RNA synthesized in vitro from cDNA or transient and stable transfections with cDNA brought under SV40 promoter control [11].
  • The glycoprotein synthesized in non-NE cells is indistinguishable from SY of NE cells and is integrated with similar, if not identical, orientation in the membranes of a specific, novel type of small cytoplasmic vesicle that structurally resembles synaptic vesicles and in which SY is the only major protein detected [11].
  • Identification and localization of synaptophysin, an integral membrane glycoprotein of Mr 38,000 characteristic of presynaptic vesicles [12].
  • This protein, for which we propose the name synaptophysin*, provides a molecular marker for the presynaptic vesicle membrane and may be involved in synaptic vesicle formation and exocytosis [12].

Chemical compound and disease context of SYP


Biological context of SYP

  • Preliminary analysis of the latter suggested that this might reflect a high density of coding sequences and we therefore undertook the complete sequencing of a SYP-containing cosmid [17].
  • This revealed the presence of 29 putative exons, organized into three genes, in addition to the 7 exons of the complete SYP coding region, all mapping within a 44-kb interval [17].
  • The region has an elevated GC content (>53%), and we identified CpG islands associated with the 5' ends of SYP, A4, and LMO6 [17].
  • Synaptophysin is a protein involved in neurotransmitter exocytosis and is a neuroendocrine marker [2].
  • Here, we show that inhibition of histone deacetylase activity in P19 cells is sufficient to activate transcription of the synaptophysin and synapsin I genes, indicating that neuronal differentiation and impairment of histone deacetylases results in a similar gene expression pattern [18].

Anatomical context of SYP


Associations of SYP with chemical compounds


Physical interactions of SYP


Co-localisations of SYP


Regulatory relationships of SYP


Other interactions of SYP

  • These neuronal precursors expressed betaIII tubulin, the dendritic marker MAP2 and the presynaptic marker synaptophysin after 7 days of in vitro maturation [34].
  • In this study, we compared the expression of AP180 with synaptophysin in the aged human brain using confocal immunofluorescence microscopy [35].
  • Cellular expression and specific intragranular localization of chromogranin A, chromogranin B, and synaptophysin during ontogeny of pancreatic islet cells: an ultrastructural study [36].
  • It was found that during prenatal development both AKAP79 and SYN expression increased gradually although a major alteration in the distribution of the proteins within the two compartments of the red nucleus was not observed [37].
  • Four glands that were strongly and diffusely positive for CT were CgB and SYN negative [38].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of SYP


  1. Immunocytochemical detection of calcineurin and microtubule-associated protein 2 in central neurocytoma. Goto, S., Nagahiro, S., Ushio, Y., Kitaoka, M., Nishio, S., Fukui, M. J. Neurooncol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  2. Synaptophysin: A novel marker for human and rat hepatic stellate cells. Cassiman, D., van Pelt, J., De Vos, R., Van Lommel, F., Desmet, V., Yap, S.H., Roskams, T. Am. J. Pathol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  3. Morphological characterisation of portal myofibroblasts and hepatic stellate cells in the normal dog liver. Ijzer, J., Roskams, T., Molenbeek, R.F., Ultee, T., Penning, L.C., Rothuizen, J., van den Ingh, T.S. Comparative hepatology (2006) [Pubmed]
  4. Regulation of synaptophysin degradation by mammalian homologues of seven in absentia. Wheeler, T.C., Chin, L.S., Li, Y., Roudabush, F.L., Li, L. J. Biol. Chem. (2002) [Pubmed]
  5. Synaptophysin expression in the human spinal cord. Diagnostic implications of an immunohistochemical study. Zhang, P.J., Rosenblum, M.K. Am. J. Surg. Pathol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  6. Growth-associated protein 43 (GAP-43) and synaptophysin alterations in the dentate gyrus of patients with schizophrenia. Chambers, J.S., Thomas, D., Saland, L., Neve, R.L., Perrone-Bizzozero, N.I. Prog. Neuropsychopharmacol. Biol. Psychiatry (2005) [Pubmed]
  7. Synaptic pathology in the anterior cingulate cortex in schizophrenia and mood disorders. A review and a Western blot study of synaptophysin, GAP-43 and the complexins. Eastwood, S.L., Harrison, P.J. Brain Res. Bull. (2001) [Pubmed]
  8. MAP2 and synaptophysin protein expression following motor learning suggests dynamic regulation and distinct alterations coinciding with synaptogenesis. Derksen, M.J., Ward, N.L., Hartle, K.D., Ivanco, T.L. Neurobiology of learning and memory (2007) [Pubmed]
  9. APP with Kunitz type protease inhibitor domain (KPI) correlates with neuritic plaque density but not with cortical synaptophysin immunoreactivity in Alzheimer's disease and non-demented aged subjects: a multifactorial analysis. Zhan, S.S., Sandbrink, R., Beyreuther, K., Schmitt, H.P. Clin. Neuropathol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  10. Synaptophysin expression in the striatum in Huntington's disease. Goto, S., Hirano, A. Acta Neuropathol. (1990) [Pubmed]
  11. Topogenesis and sorting of synaptophysin: synthesis of a synaptic vesicle protein from a gene transfected into nonneuroendocrine cells. Leube, R.E., Wiedenmann, B., Franke, W.W. Cell (1989) [Pubmed]
  12. Identification and localization of synaptophysin, an integral membrane glycoprotein of Mr 38,000 characteristic of presynaptic vesicles. Wiedenmann, B., Franke, W.W. Cell (1985) [Pubmed]
  13. Estradiol regulation of astroglia and apolipoprotein E: An important role in neuronal regeneration. Struble, R.G., Nathan, B.P., Cady, C., Cheng, X., McAsey, M. Exp. Gerontol. (2007) [Pubmed]
  14. A comparison of synaptophysin, chromogranin, and L-dopa decarboxylase as markers for neuroendocrine differentiation in lung cancer cell lines. Jensen, S.M., Gazdar, A.F., Cuttitta, F., Russell, E.K., Linnoila, R.I. Cancer Res. (1990) [Pubmed]
  15. A clinicopathologic study of three carcinoid tumors metastatic to the orbit. Immunohistochemical, ultrastructural, and DNA flow cytometric studies. Shetlar, D.J., Font, R.L., Ordóñez, N., el-Naggar, A., Boniuk, M. Ophthalmology (1990) [Pubmed]
  16. Primitive neuroectodermal tumors of the central nervous system. Patterns of expression of neuroendocrine markers, and all classes of intermediate filament proteins. Gould, V.E., Jansson, D.S., Molenaar, W.M., Rorke, L.B., Trojanowski, J.Q., Lee, V.M., Packer, R.J., Franke, W.W. Lab. Invest. (1990) [Pubmed]
  17. Sequence-based exon prediction around the synaptophysin locus reveals a gene-rich area containing novel genes in human proximal Xp. Fisher, S.E., Ciccodicola, A., Tanaka, K., Curci, A., Desicato, S., D'urso, M., Craig, I.W. Genomics (1997) [Pubmed]
  18. RE-1 silencing transcription factor (REST) regulates human synaptophysin gene transcription through an intronic sequence-specific DNA-binding site. Lietz, M., Hohl, M., Thiel, G. Eur. J. Biochem. (2003) [Pubmed]
  19. Synaptophysin and GAP-43 mRNA levels in the hippocampus of subjects with schizophrenia. Webster, M.J., Shannon Weickert, C., Herman, M.M., Hyde, T.M., Kleinman, J.E. Schizophr. Res. (2001) [Pubmed]
  20. Synaptic and dendritic pathology in murine retroviral encephalitis. Nagra, R.M., Masliah, E., Wiley, C.A. Exp. Neurol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  21. Cholesterol binds to synaptophysin and is required for biogenesis of synaptic vesicles. Thiele, C., Hannah, M.J., Fahrenholz, F., Huttner, W.B. Nat. Cell Biol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  22. Regulation by neurotransmitter receptors of serotonergic or catecholaminergic neuronal cell differentiation. Mouillet-Richard, S., Mutel, V., Loric, S., Tournois, C., Launay, J.M., Kellermann, O. J. Biol. Chem. (2000) [Pubmed]
  23. Neuroprotective Effects of Angiotensin II Type 1 Receptor (AT1R) Blocker, Telmisartan, via Modulating AT1R and AT2R Signaling in Retinal Inflammation. Kurihara, T., Ozawa, Y., Shinoda, K., Nagai, N., Inoue, M., Oike, Y., Tsubota, K., Ishida, S., Okano, H. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (2006) [Pubmed]
  24. Glucocorticoid exposure at the dose used clinically alters cytoskeletal proteins and presynaptic terminals in the fetal baboon brain. Antonow-Schlorke, I., Schwab, M., Li, C., Nathanielsz, P.W. J. Physiol. (Lond.) (2003) [Pubmed]
  25. Unloading kinesin transported cargoes from the tubulin track via the inflammatory c-Jun N-terminal kinase pathway. Stagi, M., Gorlovoy, P., Larionov, S., Takahashi, K., Neumann, H. FASEB J. (2006) [Pubmed]
  26. Cadherin binding sites of plakoglobin: localization, specificity and role in targeting to adhering junctions. Troyanovsky, R.B., Chitaev, N.A., Troyanovsky, S.M. J. Cell. Sci. (1996) [Pubmed]
  27. Synaptophysin regulates clathrin-independent endocytosis of synaptic vesicles. Daly, C., Sugimori, M., Moreira, J.E., Ziff, E.B., Llinás, R. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2000) [Pubmed]
  28. Immunohistochemical study of the hippocampus in parkinsonism-dementia complex on Guam. Ito, H., Goto, S., Hirano, A., Yen, S.H. Journal of geriatric psychiatry and neurology. (1991) [Pubmed]
  29. The cytoplasmic tail of the vesicular acetylcholine transporter contains a synaptic vesicle targeting signal. Varoqui, H., Erickson, J.D. J. Biol. Chem. (1998) [Pubmed]
  30. Differential expression of synaptoporin and synaptophysin in primary sensory neurons and up-regulation of synaptoporin after peripheral nerve injury. Sun, T., Xiao, H.S., Zhou, P.B., Lu, Y.J., Bao, L., Zhang, X. Neuroscience (2006) [Pubmed]
  31. Immunocytochemical localization of synaptophysin in human hypophyses and pituitary adenomas. Stefaneanu, L., Ryan, N., Kovacs, K. Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med. (1988) [Pubmed]
  32. SWI/SNF complex is essential for NRSF-mediated suppression of neuronal genes in human nonsmall cell lung carcinoma cell lines. Watanabe, H., Mizutani, T., Haraguchi, T., Yamamichi, N., Minoguchi, S., Yamamichi-Nishina, M., Mori, N., Kameda, T., Sugiyama, T., Iba, H. Oncogene (2006) [Pubmed]
  33. Papillary glioneuronal tumor. Vajtai, I., Kappeler, A., Lukes, A., Arnold, M., Lüthy, A.R., Leibundgut, K. Pathol. Res. Pract. (2006) [Pubmed]
  34. Differentiation of human adult skin-derived neuronal precursors into mature neurons. Gingras, M., Champigny, M.F., Berthod, F. J. Cell. Physiol. (2007) [Pubmed]
  35. Immunohistochemical characterization of clathrin assembly protein AP180 and synaptophysin in human brain. Yao, P.J., O'Herron, T.M., Coleman, P.D. Neurobiol. Aging (2003) [Pubmed]
  36. Cellular expression and specific intragranular localization of chromogranin A, chromogranin B, and synaptophysin during ontogeny of pancreatic islet cells: an ultrastructural study. Lukinius, A., Stridsberg, M., Wilander, E. Pancreas (2003) [Pubmed]
  37. Expression of a kinase anchoring protein 79 and synaptophysin in the developing human red nucleus. Ulfig, N., Chan, W.Y. Neurosignals (2002) [Pubmed]
  38. Calcitonin immunoreactivity in neoplastic and hyperplastic parathyroid glands: an immunohistochemical study. Khan, A., Tischler, A.S., Patwardhan, N.A., DeLellis, R.A. Endocr. Pathol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  39. Detection of synaptophysin-producing cells in human thymus by immunohistochemistry and nonradioactive in situ hybridization. Maggiano, N., Lauriola, L., Serra, F.G., Ricci, R., Capelli, A., Ranelletti, F.O. J. Histochem. Cytochem. (1999) [Pubmed]
  40. Co-localization of synaptophysin with different neuroendocrine hormones in the human gastrointestinal tract. Portela-Gomes, G.M., Stridsberg, M., Johansson, H., Grimelius, L. Histochem. Cell Biol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  41. Stargazin mutation impairs cerebellar synaptogenesis, synaptic maturation and synaptic protein distribution. Meng, H., Walker, N., Su, Y., Qiao, X. Brain Res. (2006) [Pubmed]
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