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Gene Review

AKT1  -  v-akt murine thymoma viral oncogene homolog 1

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Disease relevance of AKT1


High impact information on AKT1


Biological context of AKT1

  • In this study, we found that either FSS or insulin stimulated insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1) tyrosine and serine phosphorylation and increased IRS-1-associated phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase activity, phosphorylation of PKB Ser-473, phosphorylation of eNOS Ser-1179, and NO production [7].
  • These results suggest that up-regulation of eNOS in response to cyclic stretch was mediated by two distinct pathways, [Ca(2+)](i) increases via the SA channel in an early phase (partially Akt/PKB), and PI3K-Akt/PKB pathways in a late phase [8].
  • In a number of other systems, a link has been established between the PI3-K-Akt/PKB pathway and NF-kappaB activation, resulting in protection against apoptosis [9].
  • We show that the two pathways are downregulated with different kinetics when the parasite is eliminated from the host cell cytoplasm and that NF-kappaB-dependent protection against apoptosis is not dependent on a functional PI3-K-Akt/PKB pathway [9].
  • Activation of Akt (protein kinase B) stimulates metaphase I to metaphase II transition in bovine oocytes [10].

Anatomical context of AKT1

  • Recently, we have shown that shear stress stimulates NO(*) production by the protein kinase B/Akt (Akt)-dependent mechanisms in bovine aortic endothelial cells (BAEC) (Go, Y. M., Boo, Y. C., Park, H., Maland, M. C., Patel, R., Pritchard, K. A., Jr., Fujio, Y., Walsh, K., Darley-Usmar, V., and Jo, H. (2001) J. Appl. Physiol. 91, 1574-1581) [11].
  • Platelet-derived growth factor-BB and thrombin activate phosphoinositide 3-kinase and protein kinase B: role in mediating airway smooth muscle proliferation [12].
  • We also demonstrate that Akt/PKB contributes, at least in part, to the proliferation of Theileria-transformed T cells [9].
  • Pericytes seeded on either type of modified FN showed phosphorylation of p38 MAPK and dephosphorylation of Akt/PKB [13].
  • Accumulation of Akt/PKB (protein kinase B), JNK1/2 (jun N-terminal kinases) and Aurora-A in oocytes during maturation was not affected by ROS [14].

Associations of AKT1 with chemical compounds


Enzymatic interactions of AKT1

  • Finally, PKB phosphorylated eNOS in vitro at the same site phosphorylated in the cell and increased eNOS enzymatic activity by 15-20-fold [18].

Other interactions of AKT1


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of AKT1


  1. Differential responsiveness of early- and late-passage endothelial cells to shear stress. Kudo, F.A., Warycha, B., Juran, P.J., Asada, H., Teso, D., Aziz, F., Frattini, J., Sumpio, B.E., Nishibe, T., Cha, C., Dardik, A. Am. J. Surg. (2005) [Pubmed]
  2. PHLPP: a phosphatase that directly dephosphorylates Akt, promotes apoptosis, and suppresses tumor growth. Gao, T., Furnari, F., Newton, A.C. Mol. Cell (2005) [Pubmed]
  3. Hyperglycemia inhibits endothelial nitric oxide synthase activity by posttranslational modification at the Akt site. Du, X.L., Edelstein, D., Dimmeler, S., Ju, Q., Sui, C., Brownlee, M. J. Clin. Invest. (2001) [Pubmed]
  4. VEGF receptor 2 and the adherens junction as a mechanical transducer in vascular endothelial cells. Shay-Salit, A., Shushy, M., Wolfovitz, E., Yahav, H., Breviario, F., Dejana, E., Resnick, N. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2002) [Pubmed]
  5. Flow shear stress stimulates Gab1 tyrosine phosphorylation to mediate protein kinase B and endothelial nitric-oxide synthase activation in endothelial cells. Jin, Z.G., Wong, C., Wu, J., Berk, B.C. J. Biol. Chem. (2005) [Pubmed]
  6. Cyclosporin A inhibits flow-mediated activation of endothelial nitric-oxide synthase by altering cholesterol content in caveolae. Lungu, A.O., Jin, Z.G., Yamawaki, H., Tanimoto, T., Wong, C., Berk, B.C. J. Biol. Chem. (2004) [Pubmed]
  7. TNF-alpha inhibits flow and insulin signaling leading to NO production in aortic endothelial cells. Kim, F., Gallis, B., Corson, M.A. Am. J. Physiol., Cell Physiol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  8. Bi-phasic activation of eNOS in response to uni-axial cyclic stretch is mediated by differential mechanisms in BAECs. Takeda, H., Komori, K., Nishikimi, N., Nimura, Y., Sokabe, M., Naruse, K. Life Sci. (2006) [Pubmed]
  9. The Akt/PKB pathway is constitutively activated in Theileria-transformed leucocytes, but does not directly control constitutive NF-kappaB activation. Heussler, V.T., Küenzi, P., Fraga, F., Schwab, R.A., Hemmings, B.A., Dobbelaere, D.A. Cell. Microbiol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  10. Activation of Akt (protein kinase B) stimulates metaphase I to metaphase II transition in bovine oocytes. Tomek, W., Smiljakovic, T. Reproduction (2005) [Pubmed]
  11. Shear stress stimulates phosphorylation of endothelial nitric-oxide synthase at Ser1179 by Akt-independent mechanisms: role of protein kinase A. Boo, Y.C., Sorescu, G., Boyd, N., Shiojima, I., Walsh, K., Du, J., Jo, H. J. Biol. Chem. (2002) [Pubmed]
  12. Platelet-derived growth factor-BB and thrombin activate phosphoinositide 3-kinase and protein kinase B: role in mediating airway smooth muscle proliferation. Walker, T.R., Moore, S.M., Lawson, M.F., Panettieri, R.A., Chilvers, E.R. Mol. Pharmacol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  13. Effect of dicarbonyl modification of fibronectin on retinal capillary pericytes. Liu, B., Bhat, M., Padival, A.K., Smith, D.G., Nagaraj, R.H. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (2004) [Pubmed]
  14. Several signaling pathways are involved in the control of cattle oocyte maturation. Vigneron, C., Perreau, C., Dupont, J., Uzbekova, S., Prigent, C., Mermillod, P. Mol. Reprod. Dev. (2004) [Pubmed]
  15. Estrogen induced changes in Akt-dependent activation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase and vasodilation. Florian, M., Lu, Y., Angle, M., Magder, S. Steroids (2004) [Pubmed]
  16. Phosphorylation and activation of heart 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase by protein kinase B and other protein kinases of the insulin signaling cascades. Deprez, J., Vertommen, D., Alessi, D.R., Hue, L., Rider, M.H. J. Biol. Chem. (1997) [Pubmed]
  17. Serotonin-induced growth of pulmonary artery smooth muscle requires activation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/serine-threonine protein kinase B/mammalian target of rapamycin/p70 ribosomal S6 kinase 1. Liu, Y., Fanburg, B.L. Am. J. Respir. Cell Mol. Biol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  18. Identification of flow-dependent endothelial nitric-oxide synthase phosphorylation sites by mass spectrometry and regulation of phosphorylation and nitric oxide production by the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase inhibitor LY294002. Gallis, B., Corthals, G.L., Goodlett, D.R., Ueba, H., Kim, F., Presnell, S.R., Figeys, D., Harrison, D.G., Berk, B.C., Aebersold, R., Corson, M.A. J. Biol. Chem. (1999) [Pubmed]
  19. Angiopoietin-1 inhibits endothelial cell apoptosis via the Akt/survivin pathway. Papapetropoulos, A., Fulton, D., Mahboubi, K., Kalb, R.G., O'Connor, D.S., Li, F., Altieri, D.C., Sessa, W.C. J. Biol. Chem. (2000) [Pubmed]
  20. Ovarian follicular growth and atresia: the relationship between cell proliferation and survival. Quirk, S.M., Cowan, R.G., Harman, R.M., Hu, C.L., Porter, D.A. J. Anim. Sci. (2004) [Pubmed]
  21. Temporal response of liver signal transduction elements during in vivo endotoxin challenge in cattle: Effects of growth hormone treatment. Li, C.J., Kahl, S., Carbaugh, D., Elsasser, T.H. Domest. Anim. Endocrinol. (2007) [Pubmed]
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