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GRIN2C  -  glutamate receptor, ionotropic, N-methyl D...

Homo sapiens

Synonyms: GluN2C, Glutamate receptor ionotropic, NMDA 2C, N-methyl D-aspartate receptor subtype 2C, NMDAR2C, NR2C
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Psychiatry related information on GRIN2C


High impact information on GRIN2C

  • We examined the molecular determinants for the NR2-subunit specificity of glycine-independent desensitization of NMDA channels using NR2C/NR2A chimeric subunits expressed in HEK 293 cells [2].
  • In studying chimeras of NR2A and NR2C subunits of the NMDA receptor, we have found that glycine-independent desensitization depends on two regions of the extracellular N-terminal domain [3].
  • Regulation of NR1/NR2C N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors by phosphorylation [4].
  • Here we investigate the role of phosphorylation of NR2C in regulating NMDA receptor trafficking and ion channel properties [4].
  • In contrast to NRI and NR2C, very weak immunoreactivity of NR2A and NR2B subunits was observed in the LC [1].

Biological context of GRIN2C

  • We find positive LOD score maxima of 0.876 at a marker D9S1838 on chromosome 9q34.3 near the NMDAR1 central subunit gene, 0.758 at marker D17S784 on chromosome 17q25 near the NMDAR2C potentiating subunit gene, and 0.453 at marker D12S77 near the NMDAR2B gene on chromosome 12p12 when analysing affected samples only [5].
  • The synaptic portion of NMDA receptors measured using MK-801 blockade was roughly 50% in all genotypes at DIV8, and this percentage became slightly larger in NR2A-/- and NR2C-/- neurons at DIV12 [6].

Anatomical context of GRIN2C

  • In situ hybridization in human brain revealed the expression of the NR2C mRNA in the pontine reticular formation and lack of expression in substantia nigra pars compacta in contrast to the distribution pattern observed previously in rodent brain [7].
  • Immunoblot analysis of membranes isolated from HEK293 cells transiently transfected with cDNAs encoding hNR1A and each of the four NR2C isoforms indicated the formation of heteromeric complexes between hNR1A and all four hNR2C isoforms [7].
  • By contrast, the cerebellar cortex of both schizophrenics and controls contained very high levels of NR2C subunit mRNA, whereas levels for the other subunit mRNAs were very low, except NR1, for which levels were moderate [8].
  • Also in rat locus coeruleus neurons, the low ethanol sensitivity of somatic NMDA receptors could be explained by a prominent expression of NR2C [9].
  • Interneurons or granular layer neurons and some glial cells express NR2C mRNA [10].

Associations of GRIN2C with chemical compounds

  • NR2C-containing N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors are highly expressed in cerebellar granule cells where they mediate the majority of current in the adult [4].
  • We identify a phosphorylation site, serine 1244 (Ser(1244)), near the extreme COOH terminus of NR2C, which is phosphorylated by both cAMP-dependent protein kinase and protein kinase C. This residue is located adjacent to the consensus PDZ ligand, a region that regulates protein-protein interactions and receptor trafficking in NR2A and NR2B [4].
  • Within the M2-3 loop, substitution of residue 619 in NR2A (valine) for the corresponding NR2C residue (isoleucine) reduced inactivation without affecting calcium permeability of the channel [11].
  • In HEK-293 cells transfected to express the NR1-1a and NR2C subunits of the NMDA receptor, antazoline and agmatine produced a voltage- and concentration-dependent block of glutamate-induced currents [12].
  • The expression of NR2C subunit containing receptors was supported by the decreased Mg(2+) sensitivity of NMDA receptors at DIV13 in +/+ but not in NR2C-/- cells [6].

Co-localisations of GRIN2C

  • NR2C immunoreactivity colocalized with NR2D in 13.1% of nodose neurons [13].

Regulatory relationships of GRIN2C

  • NR2C mRNA was expressed at low levels in distinct layers that differed by region and the NR2D signal was equally moderate throughout all regions [10].

Other interactions of GRIN2C

  • cDNAs encoding four isoforms of the human NMDA receptor (NMDAR) NMDAR2C (hNR2C-1, -2, -3, and -4) have been isolated and characterized [7].
  • The region on NR2A that conveyed enhancement localized to a discrete segment of the C terminus distal to the portion of NR2C that is homologous to NR2A [14].
  • Neurons in the molecular layer, i.e., basket cells and stellate cells, showed moderate hybridization signals for NMDAR1 and NMDAR2D and low signal for NMDAR2C [15].
  • However, we did not detect the mRNA expression of NR2C, NR3B, mGlu.R6 and mGlu.R7 mRNA [16].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of GRIN2C

  • Immunohistochemistry revealed that in control rats, CB(1)R is expressed in the majority (76-83%) of nociceptive neurons as indicated by co-labeling with isolectin B4 (IB4) or antibodies recognizing transient receptor potential vanilloid (TRPV1), calcitonin gene related peptide (CGRP), and the NR2C/2D subunits of the N-methyl- d-aspartate receptor [17].


  1. Elevated levels of the NR2C subunit of the NMDA receptor in the locus coeruleus in depression. Karolewicz, B., Stockmeier, C.A., Ordway, G.A. Neuropsychopharmacology (2005) [Pubmed]
  2. N-terminal domains in the NR2 subunit control desensitization of NMDA receptors. Krupp, J.J., Vissel, B., Heinemann, S.F., Westbrook, G.L. Neuron (1998) [Pubmed]
  3. Glycine-independent NMDA receptor desensitization: localization of structural determinants. Villarroel, A., Regalado, M.P., Lerma, J. Neuron (1998) [Pubmed]
  4. Regulation of NR1/NR2C N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors by phosphorylation. Chen, B.S., Braud, S., Badger, J.D., Isaac, J.T., Roche, K.W. J. Biol. Chem. (2006) [Pubmed]
  5. A linkage study of the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor subunit gene loci and schizophrenia in southern African Bantu-speaking families. Riley, B.P., Tahir, E., Rajagopalan, S., Mogudi-Carter, M., Fauré, S., Weissenbach, J., Jenkins, T., Williamson, R. Psychiatr. Genet. (1997) [Pubmed]
  6. NMDA Receptor Subtypes at Autaptic Synapses of Cerebellar Granule Neurons. Lu, C., Fu, Z., Karavanov, I., Yasuda, R.P., Wolfe, B.B., Buonanno, A., Vicini, S. J. Neurophysiol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  7. The human N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor 2C subunit: genomic analysis, distribution in human brain, and functional expression. Daggett, L.P., Johnson, E.C., Varney, M.A., Lin, F.F., Hess, S.D., Deal, C.R., Jachec, C., Lu, C.C., Kerner, J.A., Landwehrmeyer, G.B., Standaert, D.G., Young, A.B., Harpold, M.M., Veliçelebi, G. J. Neurochem. (1998) [Pubmed]
  8. Selective alterations in gene expression for NMDA receptor subunits in prefrontal cortex of schizophrenics. Akbarian, S., Sucher, N.J., Bradley, D., Tafazzoli, A., Trinh, D., Hetrick, W.P., Potkin, S.G., Sandman, C.A., Bunney, W.E., Jones, E.G. J. Neurosci. (1996) [Pubmed]
  9. Ethanol sensitivity of NMDA receptors. Allgaier, C. Neurochem. Int. (2002) [Pubmed]
  10. Expression of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor subunit mRNAs in the human brain: hippocampus and cortex. Scherzer, C.R., Landwehrmeyer, G.B., Kerner, J.A., Counihan, T.J., Kosinski, C.M., Standaert, D.G., Daggett, L.P., Veliçelebi, G., Penney, J.B., Young, A.B. J. Comp. Neurol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  11. Intracellular domains of NR2 alter calcium-dependent inactivation of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors. Vissel, B., Krupp, J.J., Heinemann, S.F., Westbrook, G.L. Mol. Pharmacol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  12. Protection by imidazol(ine) drugs and agmatine of glutamate-induced neurotoxicity in cultured cerebellar granule cells through blockade of NMDA receptor. Olmos, G., DeGregorio-Rocasolano, N., Paz Regalado, M., Gasull, T., Assumpció Boronat, M., Trullas, R., Villarroel, A., Lerma, J., García-Sevilla, J.A. Br. J. Pharmacol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  13. N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor subunit phenotypes of vagal afferent neurons in nodose ganglia of the rat. Czaja, K., Ritter, R.C., Burns, G.A. J. Comp. Neurol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  14. Opposing contributions of NR1 and NR2 to protein kinase C modulation of NMDA receptors. Grant, E.R., Bacskai, B.J., Anegawa, N.J., Pleasure, D.E., Lynch, D.R. J. Neurochem. (1998) [Pubmed]
  15. Cellular distribution of NMDA glutamate receptor subunit mRNAs in the human cerebellum. Scherzer, C.R., Landwehrmeyer, G.B., Kerner, J.A., Standaert, D.G., Hollingsworth, Z.R., Daggett, L.P., Veliçelebi, G., Penney, J.B., Young, A.B. Neurobiol. Dis. (1997) [Pubmed]
  16. Characterization of the glutametergic system in MG-63 osteoblast-like osteosarcoma cells. Kalariti, N., Lembessis, P., Koutsilieris, M. Anticancer Res. (2004) [Pubmed]
  17. Site-specific increases in peripheral cannabinoid receptors and their endogenous ligands in a model of neuropathic pain. Mitrirattanakul, S., Ramakul, N., Guerrero, A.V., Matsuka, Y., Ono, T., Iwase, H., Mackie, K., Faull, K.F., Spigelman, I. Pain (2006) [Pubmed]
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