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Gene Review

GRIN2D  -  glutamate receptor, ionotropic, N-methyl D...

Homo sapiens

Synonyms: EB11, GluN2D, Glutamate receptor ionotropic, NMDA 2D, N-methyl D-aspartate receptor subtype 2D, NMDAR2D, ...
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High impact information on GRIN2D


Biological context of GRIN2D

  • 3. Memantine (0.3-30 microM) blocked L-glutamate (100 microM)-mediated currents in a concentration-dependent manner in NR1a/NR2A, NR1a/NR2B and NR1a/NR2D transfected cells with IC50 values (at -70 mV) of 0.93 +/- 0.15 microM, 0.82 +/- 0.12 microM and 0.47 +/- 0.06 microM (mean +/- s.c. mean), respectively [4].
  • METHODS: We screened for polymorphisms in exons, exon-intron boundaries and the 5' upstream region of GRIN2D by direct sequencing in 32 Japanese patients [5].
  • Identification of single-nucleotide polymorphisms in the human N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor subunit NR2D gene, GRIN2D, and association study with schizophrenia [5].
  • To determine whether the interaction of NR2D with the Abl SH3 domain alters Abl kinase activity, Abl was expressed alone or with NR2D in 293T cells [3].

Anatomical context of GRIN2D


Associations of GRIN2D with chemical compounds

  • This study demonstrates the generation and characterization of an antibody selective for the NR2D NMDA receptor subunit as well as a determination of the distribution and ontogenic profile of this subunit in rat brain [6].
  • While NR2A, NR2B and NR2D are known to be phosphorylated on tyrosine residues, the exact sites have remained unidentified [11].
  • For both, NR2C and NR2D, no ethanol-related changes of mRNA expression were observed [12].
  • Expression of NMDAR2D glutamate receptor subunit mRNA in neurochemically identified interneurons in the rat neostriatum, neocortex and hippocampus [10].
  • Thus, we suggest that NR2D is one of the direct targets of estrogen receptors which are involved in reproductive as well as non-reproductive actions in the brain [13].

Co-localisations of GRIN2D

  • NR2C immunoreactivity colocalized with NR2D in 13.1% of nodose neurons [14].

Regulatory relationships of GRIN2D

  • NR2C mRNA was expressed at low levels in distinct layers that differed by region and the NR2D signal was equally moderate throughout all regions [9].

Other interactions of GRIN2D

  • The results suggest that native NMDA receptors containing the NR2D subunit may have functional roles not only in the young brain but also in adult brain [6].
  • Neurons in the molecular layer, i.e., basket cells and stellate cells, showed moderate hybridization signals for NMDAR1 and NMDAR2D and low signal for NMDAR2C [15].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of GRIN2D


  1. Expression of a functional N-methyl-D-aspartate-type glutamate receptor by bone marrow megakaryocytes. Genever, P.G., Wilkinson, D.J., Patton, A.J., Peet, N.M., Hong, Y., Mathur, A., Erusalimsky, J.D., Skerry, T.M. Blood (1999) [Pubmed]
  2. Selective alterations in glutamate and GABA receptor subunit mRNA expression in dysplastic neurons and giant cells of cortical tubers. White, R., Hua, Y., Scheithauer, B., Lynch, D.R., Henske, E.P., Crino, P.B. Ann. Neurol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  3. Interaction of the N-methyl-D-aspartic acid receptor NR2D subunit with the c-Abl tyrosine kinase. Glover, R.T., Angiolieri, M., Kelly, S., Monaghan, D.T., Wang, J.Y., Smithgall, T.E., Buller, A.L. J. Biol. Chem. (2000) [Pubmed]
  4. Effects of memantine on recombinant rat NMDA receptors expressed in HEK 293 cells. Bresink, I., Benke, T.A., Collett, V.J., Seal, A.J., Parsons, C.G., Henley, J.M., Collingridge, G.L. Br. J. Pharmacol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  5. Identification of single-nucleotide polymorphisms in the human N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor subunit NR2D gene, GRIN2D, and association study with schizophrenia. Makino, C., Shibata, H., Ninomiya, H., Tashiro, N., Fukumaki, Y. Psychiatr. Genet. (2005) [Pubmed]
  6. Regional and ontogenic expression of the NMDA receptor subunit NR2D protein in rat brain using a subunit-specific antibody. Dunah, A.W., Yasuda, R.P., Wang, Y.H., Luo, J., Dávila-García, M., Gbadegesin, M., Vicini, S., Wolfe, B.B. J. Neurochem. (1996) [Pubmed]
  7. Molecular characterization and embryonic expression of the family of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor subunit genes in the zebrafish. Cox, J.A., Kucenas, S., Voigt, M.M. Dev. Dyn. (2005) [Pubmed]
  8. Functional characterization of human N-methyl-D-aspartate subtype 1A/2D receptors. Hess, S.D., Daggett, L.P., Deal, C., Lu, C.C., Johnson, E.C., Veliçelebi, G. J. Neurochem. (1998) [Pubmed]
  9. Expression of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor subunit mRNAs in the human brain: hippocampus and cortex. Scherzer, C.R., Landwehrmeyer, G.B., Kerner, J.A., Counihan, T.J., Kosinski, C.M., Standaert, D.G., Daggett, L.P., Veliçelebi, G., Penney, J.B., Young, A.B. J. Comp. Neurol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  10. Expression of NMDAR2D glutamate receptor subunit mRNA in neurochemically identified interneurons in the rat neostriatum, neocortex and hippocampus. Standaert, D.G., Landwehrmeyer, G.B., Kerner, J.A., Penney, J.B., Young, A.B. Brain Res. Mol. Brain Res. (1996) [Pubmed]
  11. Identification of mouse NMDA receptor subunit NR2A C-terminal tyrosine sites phosphorylated by coexpression with v-Src. Yang, M., Leonard, J.P. J. Neurochem. (2001) [Pubmed]
  12. Changes in NMDA receptor subunit gene expression in the rat brain following withdrawal from forced long-term ethanol intake. Darstein, M.B., Landwehrmeyer, G.B., Feuerstein, T.J. Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch. Pharmacol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  13. NMDA receptor type 2D gene as target for estrogen receptor in the brain. Watanabe, T., Inoue, S., Hiroi, H., Orimo, A., Muramatsu, M. Brain Res. Mol. Brain Res. (1999) [Pubmed]
  14. N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor subunit phenotypes of vagal afferent neurons in nodose ganglia of the rat. Czaja, K., Ritter, R.C., Burns, G.A. J. Comp. Neurol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  15. Cellular distribution of NMDA glutamate receptor subunit mRNAs in the human cerebellum. Scherzer, C.R., Landwehrmeyer, G.B., Kerner, J.A., Standaert, D.G., Hollingsworth, Z.R., Daggett, L.P., Veliçelebi, G., Penney, J.B., Young, A.B. Neurobiol. Dis. (1997) [Pubmed]
  16. Increased expression of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor subunit 2D in the skin of patients with fibromyalgia. Kim, S.H., Jang, T.J., Moon, I.S. J. Rheumatol. (2006) [Pubmed]
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