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Gene Review

N  -  nucleocapsid protein

Peste-des-petits-ruminants virus

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Disease relevance of N


High impact information on N


Chemical compound and disease context of N

  • Poly(A)+ RNAs that were extracted from C6/SSPE cells before and after a shift to 39 degrees C produced detectable phospho, nucleocapsid, and M proteins in cell-free translation systems at 32 degrees C. Even higher incubation temperatures did not demonstrate the selective depression of M protein synthesis described above in vitro [11].

Biological context of N

  • The nucleotide sequence of the coding region of the N gene of RPVK is 88.6, 68.9, and 63.2% homologous with N genes of RPVL, MV, and CDV, respectively [12].
  • A comparison of its nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequence with those of the N gene of the tissue culture-attenuated strain of PPRV was performed [13].
  • These data suggested that the cell-mediated immunity induced by rVV-RPV-N could stimulate the rapid production of neutralizing antibodies following RPV challenge but this response was not sufficient to protect against challenge with a virulent strain of the virus [14].
  • We have sequenced the nucleocapsid (N) and polymerase (L) genes of the vaccine strain of rinderpest, and the 5' and 3' terminal domains of the genome [15].
  • Six antigenic sites (sites A, B, C, D, E and F), defined previously by a competitive binding assay using corresponding monoclonal antibodies (Mabs), have been further localized by immunoassays using deleted N mutants [16].

Anatomical context of N


Associations of N with chemical compounds

  • Recovery of nucleocapsid production started within a few hours after removal of halothane [22].
  • A specific response was detected to all RPV proteins tested, namely the haemagglutinin (H), fusion (F), nucleocapsid (N) and matrix (M) proteins, in animals vaccinated with the attenuated strain of the virus [23].
  • Seven virus-induced polypeptides have been asigned the following nomenclature and mol. wt.: a large polypeptide L (180,000); a large glycoprotein G (77,000); a nucleocapsid-associated protein P (73,000); the nucleocapsid protein N (60,000); the smaller glycoprotein F0 (59,000); a membrane protein M (35,000) and a small polypeptide S (15,000) [24].
  • They can be distinguished by differential neutralisation tests and by the migration of the major virus structural protein, the nucleocapsid protein, on polyacrylamide gels [25].
  • Inhibition of the accumulation of the nucleocapsid proteins by actinomycin D led to an increase in CAT expression [26].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of N

  • A 590 bp fragment of the carboxyl terminus of the nucleocapsid (N) was amplified by PCR and subjected to sequence and phylogenetic analysis [27].
  • On intramuscular injection of pMV64 DNA into C3H/He mice, seroconversion with increasing titers of N-specific serum IgG antibodies was observed over a period of 3 months [5].
  • Serum from five species, tested in a heterologous immunoprecipitation assay using radiolabelled CDV, precipitated the nucleocapsid (N) protein [28].
  • In ELISA using deleted N mutants, Mabs recognizing sites A, B, C, D and E reacted with 3 GST fusion proteins (GST-N1-149, GST-N1-421 and GST-N1-525), indicating that they are located at aa 80-149 [16].
  • With a hybridization tomographic technique that combines in situ hybridization with macroradioautographic screening of large areas of tissue, we analyzed the spatial and temporal distribution of virus genes in vivo, using region- and strand-specific probes for the nucleocapsid and matrix genes [8].


  1. Single oral immunization with replication deficient recombinant adenovirus elicits long-lived transgene-specific cellular and humoral immune responses. Sharpe, S., Fooks, A., Lee, J., Hayes, K., Clegg, C., Cranage, M. Virology (2002) [Pubmed]
  2. Sequencing and analysis of the nucleocapsid (N) and polymerase (L) genes and the terminal extragenic domains of the vaccine strain of rinderpest virus. Baron, M.D., Barrett, T. J. Gen. Virol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  3. Efficacy of individual measles virus structural proteins in the protection of rats from measles encephalitis. Brinckmann, U.G., Bankamp, B., Reich, A., ter Meulen, V., Liebert, U.G. J. Gen. Virol. (1991) [Pubmed]
  4. Antigenic and immunogenic investigation of B-cell epitopes in the nucleocapsid protein of peste des petits ruminants virus. Choi, K.S., Nah, J.J., Ko, Y.J., Kang, S.Y., Yoon, K.J., Jo, N.I. Clin. Diagn. Lab. Immunol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  5. Immunization of mice with plasmid DNA expressing the measles virus nucleoprotein gene. Fooks, A.R., Jeevarajah, D., Warnes, A., Wilkinson, G.W., Clegg, J.C. Viral Immunol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  6. Induction of subacute murine measles encephalitis by monoclonal antibody to virus haemagglutinin. Rammohan, K.W., McFarland, H.F., McFarlin, D.E. Nature (1981) [Pubmed]
  7. Persistent measles virus genome in autoimmune chronic active hepatitis. Robertson, D.A., Zhang, S.L., Guy, E.C., Wright, R. Lancet (1987) [Pubmed]
  8. Natural history of restricted synthesis and expression of measles virus genes in subacute sclerosing panencephalitis. Haase, A.T., Gantz, D., Eble, B., Walker, D., Stowring, L., Ventura, P., Blum, H., Wietgrefe, S., Zupancic, M., Tourtellotte, W. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1985) [Pubmed]
  9. Detection of measles virus nucleocapsid transcripts in circulating blood cells from patients with Paget disease. Reddy, S.V., Singer, F.R., Mallette, L., Roodman, G.D. J. Bone Miner. Res. (1996) [Pubmed]
  10. Absence of paramyxovirus RNA in cultures of pagetic bone cells and in pagetic bone. Birch, M.A., Taylor, W., Fraser, W.D., Ralston, S.H., Hart, C.A., Gallagher, J.A. J. Bone Miner. Res. (1994) [Pubmed]
  11. Selective inhibition of translation of the mRNA coding for measles virus membrane protein at elevated temperatures. Ogura, H., Baczko, K., Rima, B.K., ter Meulen, V. J. Virol. (1987) [Pubmed]
  12. Cloning and expression of the nucleocapsid gene of virulent Kabete O strain of rinderpest virus in baculovirus: use in differential diagnosis between vaccinated and infected animals. Ismail, T., Ahmad, S., D'Souza-Ault, M., Bassiri, M., Saliki, J., Mebus, C., Yilma, T. Virology (1994) [Pubmed]
  13. Cloning and expression of the nucleoprotein of peste des petits ruminants virus in baculovirus for use in serological diagnosis. Ismail, T.M., Yamanaka, M.K., Saliki, J.T., el-Kholy, A., Mebus, C., Yilma, T. Virology (1995) [Pubmed]
  14. Cell-mediated immune responses in cattle vaccinated with a vaccinia virus recombinant expressing the nucleocapsid protein of rinderpest virus. Ohishi, K., Inui, K., Yamanouchi, K., Barrett, T. J. Gen. Virol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  15. The sequence of the N and L genes of rinderpest virus, and the 5' and 3' extra-genic sequences: the completion of the genome sequence of the virus. Baron, M.D., Barrett, T. Vet. Microbiol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  16. Localization of antigenic sites at the amino-terminus of rinderpest virus N protein using deleted N mutants and monoclonal antibody. Choi, K.S., Nah, J.J., Ko, Y.J., Kang, S.Y., Joo, Y.S. J. Vet. Sci. (2003) [Pubmed]
  17. Recombinant bacille Calmette-Guérin priming against measles. Fennelly, G.J., Flynn, J.L., ter Meulen, V., Liebert, U.G., Bloom, B.R. J. Infect. Dis. (1995) [Pubmed]
  18. Bone marrow mononuclear cells from patients with Paget's disease contain measles virus nucleocapsid messenger ribonucleic acid that has mutations in a specific region of the sequence. Reddy, S.V., Singer, F.R., Roodman, G.D. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (1995) [Pubmed]
  19. Isolation of cold-sensitive mutants of measles virus from persistently infected murine neuroblastoma cells. Rager-Zisman, B., Egan, J.E., Kress, Y., Bloom, B.R. J. Virol. (1984) [Pubmed]
  20. Humoral and cellular immune responses to matrix protein of measles virus in subacute sclerosing panencephalitis. Dhib-Jalbut, S., McFarland, H.F., Mingioli, E.S., Sever, J.L., McFarlin, D.E. J. Virol. (1988) [Pubmed]
  21. Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis: measles virus matrix protein nucleic acid sequences detected by in situ hybridization. Shapshak, P., Tourtellotte, W.W., Nakamura, S., Graves, M.C., Darvish, M., Hoffman, D., Walsh, M.J., Fareed, G.C., Schmid, P., Heinzmann, C. Neurology (1985) [Pubmed]
  22. Anesthetic action and virus replication: inhibition of measles virus replication in cells exposed to halothane. Knight, P.R., Nahrwold, M.L., Bedows, E. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. (1980) [Pubmed]
  23. Vaccination of cattle with attenuated rinderpest virus stimulates CD4(+) T cell responses with broad viral antigen specificity. Lund, B.T., Tiwari, A., Galbraith, S., Baron, M.D., Morrison, W.I., Barrett, T. J. Gen. Virol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  24. A comparison of measles and canine distemper virus polypeptides. Campbell, J.J., Cosby, S.L., Scott, J.K., Rima, B.K., Martin, S.J., Appel, M. J. Gen. Virol. (1980) [Pubmed]
  25. Differentiation of rinderpest and peste des petits ruminants viruses using specific cDNA clones. Diallo, A., Barrett, T., Barbron, M., Subbarao, S.M., Taylor, W.P. J. Virol. Methods (1989) [Pubmed]
  26. A functional measles virus replication and transcription machinery encoded by the vaccinia virus genome. Howley, P.M., Lafont, B., Spehner, D., Kaelin, K., Billeter, M.A., Drillien, R. J. Virol. Methods (1999) [Pubmed]
  27. Sequence analysis of the nucleocapsid gene of measles virus isolates from South Africa identifies a new genotype. Kreis, S., Vardas, E., Whistler, T. J. Gen. Virol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  28. Morbillivirus infection in cetaceans of the western Atlantic. Duignan, P.J., House, C., Geraci, J.R., Duffy, N., Rima, B.K., Walsh, M.T., Early, G., St Aubin, D.J., Sadove, S., Koopman, H. Vet. Microbiol. (1995) [Pubmed]
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