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Gene Review

N  -  nucleocapsid protein

Measles virus

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Disease relevance of N

  • By DNA-mediated gene transfer into a line of simian virus 40-transformed monkey kidney cells, the N-specific cDNA was expressed into a single polypeptide of about 60,000 Mr, which was immunoprecipitated by monoclonal antibodies against the measles virus N protein [1].
  • When the nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequences of the N, P, V and C genes were aligned with corresponding sequences of other established members of the morbillivirus genus, compelling homology was found between PDV and canine distemper virus (CDV), whereas there was markedly less similarity between PDV and measles virus or rinderpest virus [2].
  • As with other morbilliviruses, the phosphoprotein (P) gene of PDV was found to be located after the 5' end of the N gene and before the 3' end of the matrix protein gene [2].
  • CONCLUSIONS: This study shows that discrimination between SSPE and MS can be achieved in doubtful cases by IEF using MV-N, P and F proteins [3].
  • Key words: Peste-des-petits-ruminants virus; PCR; RT-PCR; M gene; N gene; H gene; F gene; multiplex PCR [4].

High impact information on N


Chemical compound and disease context of N


Biological context of N


Anatomical context of N


Associations of N with chemical compounds

  • These cross-reactivities and type-specific reactions were obtained with the internal viral proteins (M, P and NP) [9].
  • Affinity purified GST-NP fusion protein has been used as a probe to examine the interaction of NP with [35S] methionine labeled proteins from MV-infected cells [21].
  • Children immunized with inactivated (Tween 80 and diethyl ether, TE) measles vaccine, attenuated live vaccine, or a combination of the two types were studied with regard to the production of hemagglutination-inhibiting (HAI), hemolysis-inhibiting (HLI), and nucleocapsid complement-fixing (CF) antibodies [22].
  • The free N-protein is phosphorylated only on serine residues, whereas the nucleocapsid-associated N-protein is phosphorylated on both serine and threonine residues [23].

Regulatory relationships of N


Other interactions of N


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of N


  1. Functional cDNA library for efficient expression of measles virus-specific gene products in primate cells. Wong, T.C., Hirano, A. J. Virol. (1986) [Pubmed]
  2. Sequence analysis of the genes encoding the nucleocapsid protein and phosphoprotein (P) of phocid distemper virus, and editing of the P gene transcript. Blixenkrone-Möller, M., Sharma, B., Varsanyi, T.M., Hu, A., Norrby, E., Kövamees, J. J. Gen. Virol. (1992) [Pubmed]
  3. Antibody reactivity to individual structural proteins of measles virus in the CSF of SSPE and MS patients. Pohl-Koppe, A., Kaiser, R., Meulen, V.T., Liebert, U.G. Clinical and diagnostic virology. (1995) [Pubmed]
  5. Measles virus nucleocapsid protein binds to FcgammaRII and inhibits human B cell antibody production. Ravanel, K., Castelle, C., Defrance, T., Wild, T.F., Charron, D., Lotteau, V., Rabourdin-Combe, C. J. Exp. Med. (1997) [Pubmed]
  6. Efficient major histocompatibility complex class II-restricted presentation of measles virus relies on hemagglutinin-mediated targeting to its cellular receptor human CD46 expressed by murine B cells. Gerlier, D., Trescol-Biémont, M.C., Varior-Krishnan, G., Naniche, D., Fugier-Vivier, I., Rabourdin-Combe, C. J. Exp. Med. (1994) [Pubmed]
  7. Osteoclasts expressing the measles virus nucleocapsid gene display a pagetic phenotype. Kurihara, N., Reddy, S.V., Menaa, C., Anderson, D., Roodman, G.D. J. Clin. Invest. (2000) [Pubmed]
  8. Transmembrane communication in cells chronically infected with measles virus. Tyrrell, D.L., Ehrnst, A. J. Cell Biol. (1979) [Pubmed]
  9. The antigenic relationship between measles, canine distemper and rinderpest viruses studied with monoclonal antibodies. Sheshberadaran, H., Norrby, E., McCullough, K.C., Carpenter, W.C., Orvell, C. J. Gen. Virol. (1986) [Pubmed]
  10. Direct in situ reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction for detection of measles virus. Ray, R., Cooper, P.J., Sim, R., Chadwick, N., Earle, P., Dhillon, A.P., Pounder, R.E., Wakefield, A.J. J. Virol. Methods (1996) [Pubmed]
  11. Tyrosine phosphorylation of measles virus nucleocapsid protein in persistently infected neuroblastoma cells. Segev, Y., Ofir, R., Salzberg, S., Heller, A., Weinstein, Y., Isakov, N., Udem, S., Wolfson, M., Rager-Zisman, B. J. Virol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  12. Immunoassays for measles virus nucleocapsid antigen: effect of antigen-antibody complexes. Salmi, A., Lund, G. J. Gen. Virol. (1984) [Pubmed]
  13. Measles virus and canine distemper virus target proteins into a TAP-independent MHC class I-restricted antigen-processing pathway. Neumeister, C., Nanan, R., Cornu, T., Lüder, C., ter Meulen, V., Naim, H., Niewiesk, S. J. Gen. Virol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  14. RNA interference with measles virus N, P, and L mRNAs efficiently prevents and with matrix protein mRNA enhances viral transcription. Reuter, T., Weissbrich, B., Schneider-Schaulies, S., Schneider-Schaulies, J. J. Virol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  15. Identification of three lineages of wild measles virus by nucleotide sequence analysis of N, P, M, F, and L genes in Japan. Yamaguchi, S. J. Med. Virol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  16. Detection of measles virus genome directly from clinical samples by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and genetic variability. Nakayama, T., Mori, T., Yamaguchi, S., Sonoda, S., Asamura, S., Yamashita, R., Takeuchi, Y., Urano, T. Virus Res. (1995) [Pubmed]
  17. Neutralizing human Fab fragments against measles virus recovered by phage display. de Carvalho Nicacio, C., Williamson, R.A., Parren, P.W., Lundkvist, A., Burton, D.R., Björling, E. J. Virol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  18. Gamma interferon is a major mediator of antiviral defense in experimental measles virus-induced encephalitis. Finke, D., Brinckmann, U.G., ter Meulen, V., Liebert, U.G. J. Virol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  19. Humoral immune response in dogs with old dog encephalitis and chromic distemper meningo-encephalitis. Rima, B.K., Baczko, K., Imagawa, D.T., ter Meulen, V. J. Gen. Virol. (1987) [Pubmed]
  20. Monoclonal antibodies against five structural components of measles virus. I. Characterization of antigenic determinants on nine strains of measles virus. Sheshberadaran, H., Chen, S.N., Norrby, E. Virology (1983) [Pubmed]
  21. Protein interaction domains of the measles virus nucleocapsid protein (NP). Liston, P., Batal, R., DiFlumeri, C., Briedis, D.J. Arch. Virol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  22. Differences in the appearance of antibodies to structural components of measles virus after immunization with inactivated and live virus. Norrby, E., Enders-Ruckle, G., Meulen, V. J. Infect. Dis. (1975) [Pubmed]
  23. Nucleoprotein phosphorylated on both serine and threonine is preferentially assembled into the nucleocapsids of measles virus. Gombart, A.F., Hirano, A., Wong, T.C. Virus Res. (1995) [Pubmed]
  24. Induction of measles virus-specific human cytotoxic T cells by purified measles virus nucleocapsid and hemagglutinin polypeptides. Jacobson, S., Rose, J.W., Flerlage, M.L., McFarlin, D.E., McFarland, H.F. Viral Immunol. (1987) [Pubmed]
  25. Measles virus nucleocapsid protein expressed in insect cells assembles into nucleocapsid-like structures. Fooks, A.R., Stephenson, J.R., Warnes, A., Dowsett, A.B., Rima, B.K., Wilkinson, G.W. J. Gen. Virol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  26. Structural basis for the attachment of a paramyxoviral polymerase to its template. Kingston, R.L., Hamel, D.J., Gay, L.S., Dahlquist, F.W., Matthews, B.W. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2004) [Pubmed]
  27. Characteristics of fresh isolates of wild measles virus. Sakaguchi, M., Yoshikawa, Y., Yamanouchi, K., Takeda, K., Sato, T. Jpn. J. Exp. Med. (1986) [Pubmed]
  28. Inhibition of ubiquitination and stabilization of human ubiquitin E3 ligase PIRH2 by measles virus phosphoprotein. Chen, M., Cortay, J.C., Logan, I.R., Sapountzi, V., Robson, C.N., Gerlier, D. J. Virol. (2005) [Pubmed]
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