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Gene Review

RPVgp4  -  M protein

Rinderpest virus (strain Kabete O)

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Disease relevance of RPVgp4

  • Measles-virus proteins in the brain tissue of patients with subacute sclerosing panencephalitis: absence of the M protein [1].
  • Here, extant MV mutants and chimeras were used to determine the role of M protein in the transport of viral glycoproteins and release of progeny virions in polarized epithelial CaCo2 cells [2].
  • These results offer concrete evidence that the M protein of an SSPE virus is functionally different from that of its progenitor acute measles virus [3].
  • Conversely, the Nagahata M protein can bind to the Biken viral nucleocapsids, although this association is not as stable at physiological salt concentration [3].
  • The M protein occurs in the infected cells as two distinct bands, and, as in the case of Sendai virus, one of these two M protein bands represents a phosphorylated form of the other [4].

High impact information on RPVgp4

  • The Nagahata viral M protein is associated with the intracellular viral nucleocapsids and the plasma membrane, whereas the Biken viral M protein is localized mainly in the cytosol [3].
  • The results suggest that in patients with SSPE there is either diminished synthesis of M, or it is not recognized normally by the immune system, and that an abnormality in M protein is involved in the pathogenesis of SSPE [5].
  • P64S and E89K substitutions were responsible for the ability of the M protein to make virus grow efficiently in Vero cells, while the first half of the Edmonston L gene was important for better replication [6].
  • The long 3' UTR of the M mRNA was shown to have the ability to increase the M protein production, promoting virus replication [7].
  • Whereas the M protein appears dispensable altogether, partial preservation of F-protein function and H-protein function seems to be required, presumably to allow local cell fusion [8].

Biological context of RPVgp4


Anatomical context of RPVgp4


Associations of RPVgp4 with chemical compounds

  • As a result, the Biken virus M protein loses conformation-specific epitopes that are conserved in the M proteins of Nagahata and Edmonston strain acute measles viruses [18].
  • The synthesis of various viral mRNAs in the presence of actinomycin D decreased gradually at similar rates after a shift to 39 degrees C. No specific disappearance of the mRNA coding for the M protein was observed when viral RNAs isolated from the infected cells were compared before and after a shift up by Northern blot analysis [19].
  • The molecular weight (38,670), deduced from the amino acid sequence, is in agreement with the molecular weight of the viral M protein estimated by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (39-40 kDa) [20].

Other interactions of RPVgp4

  • However, limited proteolysis has shown that this protein is not a phosphorylated form of the M protein, but appears related to the P protein of measles virus [21].
  • The synthesis of H, N and possibly F protein was seen in both lytic and persistent infections, but the synthesis of M protein was only detected in the lytic infection [22].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of RPVgp4

  • This phenomenon was confirmed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of total cytoplasmic lysates and immunoprecipitation with monoclonal antibody against the M protein in short-time labeling experiments [19].
  • The sequences of the human parainfluenza virus type 3 (PIV3) matrix (M) mRNA [1150 nucleotides exclusive of poly(A)] and predicted M protein (353 amino acids) were determined by sequence analysis of cloned cDNA and viral genomic RNA [23].
  • In situ hybridization with a tritiated cloned cDNA probe was used to search for RNA encoding M protein [24].
  • In the culture SSPE virus isolate, the results were the same until the infected cells were examined by electron microscopy and a very limited expression of M protein was revealed [24].
  • By immunocytochemistry using the anti-M monospecific serum, M protein was detected in all of the virus-infected cells regardless of cell-free virus production [25].


  1. Measles-virus proteins in the brain tissue of patients with subacute sclerosing panencephalitis: absence of the M protein. Hall, W.W., Choppin, P.W. N. Engl. J. Med. (1981) [Pubmed]
  2. Measles virus matrix protein specifies apical virus release and glycoprotein sorting in epithelial cells. Naim, H.Y., Ehler, E., Billeter, M.A. EMBO J. (2000) [Pubmed]
  3. The matrix proteins of neurovirulent subacute sclerosing panencephalitis virus and its acute measles virus progenitor are functionally different. Hirano, A., Wang, A.H., Gombart, A.F., Wong, T.C. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1992) [Pubmed]
  4. Measles virus polypeptides in infected cells studied by immune precipitation and one-dimensional peptide mapping. Graves, M.C. J. Virol. (1981) [Pubmed]
  5. Measles and subacute sclerosing panencephalitis virus proteins: lack of antibodies to the M protein in patients with subacute sclerosing panencephalitis. Hall, W.W., Lamb, R.A., Choppin, P.W. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1979) [Pubmed]
  6. Contributions of matrix and large protein genes of the measles virus edmonston strain to growth in cultured cells as revealed by recombinant viruses. Tahara, M., Takeda, M., Yanagi, Y. J. Virol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  7. Long untranslated regions of the measles virus M and F genes control virus replication and cytopathogenicity. Takeda, M., Ohno, S., Seki, F., Nakatsu, Y., Tahara, M., Yanagi, Y. J. Virol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  8. Cell fusion by the envelope glycoproteins of persistent measles viruses which caused lethal human brain disease. Cattaneo, R., Rose, J.K. J. Virol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  9. Paramyxovirus membrane protein enhances antibody production to new antigenic determinants in the actin molecule: a model for virus-induced autoimmunity. Anomasiri, W.T., Tovell, D.R., Tyrrell, D.L. J. Virol. (1990) [Pubmed]
  10. Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis: measles virus matrix protein nucleic acid sequences detected by in situ hybridization. Shapshak, P., Tourtellotte, W.W., Nakamura, S., Graves, M.C., Darvish, M., Hoffman, D., Walsh, M.J., Fareed, G.C., Schmid, P., Heinzmann, C. Neurology (1985) [Pubmed]
  11. Structure and function of bicistronic RNA encoding the phosphoprotein and matrix protein of measles virus. Wong, T.C., Hirano, A. J. Virol. (1987) [Pubmed]
  12. Molecular cloning and sequence analysis of the human parainfluenza 3 virus gene encoding the matrix protein. Galinski, M.S., Mink, M.A., Lambert, D.M., Wechsler, S.L., Pons, M.W. Virology (1987) [Pubmed]
  13. Characterization of the measles virus isolated from the brain of a patient with immunosuppressive measles encephalitis. Ohuchi, M., Ohuchi, R., Mifune, K., Ishihara, T., Ogawa, T. J. Infect. Dis. (1987) [Pubmed]
  14. M protein instability and lack of H protein processing associated with nonproductive persistent infection of HeLa cells by measles virus. Young, K.K., Heineke, B.E., Wechsler, S.L. Virology (1985) [Pubmed]
  15. Restricted expression of viral surface proteins in canine distemper encephalitis. Alldinger, S., Baumgärtner, W., Orvell, C. Acta Neuropathol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  16. Comparison of the neuropathogenicity of two SSPE sibling viruses of the Osaka-2 strain isolated with Vero and B95a cells. Ito, N., Ayata, M., Shingai, M., Furukawa, K., Seto, T., Matsunaga, I., Muraoka, M., Ogura, H. J. Neurovirol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  17. Measles virus matrix protein is not cotransported with the viral glycoproteins but requires virus infection for efficient surface targeting. Riedl, P., Moll, M., Klenk, H.D., Maisner, A. Virus Res. (2002) [Pubmed]
  18. Role of biased hypermutation in evolution of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis virus from progenitor acute measles virus. Wong, T.C., Ayata, M., Ueda, S., Hirano, A. J. Virol. (1991) [Pubmed]
  19. Selective inhibition of translation of the mRNA coding for measles virus membrane protein at elevated temperatures. Ogura, H., Baczko, K., Rima, B.K., ter Meulen, V. J. Virol. (1987) [Pubmed]
  20. Complete nucleotide sequence of the matrix protein mRNA of mumps virus. Elango, N. Virology (1989) [Pubmed]
  21. A study of phosphorylation of the measles membrane protein. Rima, B.K., Lappin, S.A., Roberts, M.W., Martin, S.J. J. Gen. Virol. (1981) [Pubmed]
  22. Persistent and lytic infections with SSPE virus: a comparison of the synthesis of virus-specific polypeptides. Stephenson, J.R., Siddell, S.G., Meulen, V.T. J. Gen. Virol. (1981) [Pubmed]
  23. Sequence analysis of the matrix protein gene of human parainfluenza virus type 3: extensive sequence homology among paramyxoviruses. Spriggs, M.K., Johnson, P.R., Collins, P.L. J. Gen. Virol. (1987) [Pubmed]
  24. Measles virus matrix protein gene expression in a subacute sclerosing panencephalitis patient brain and virus isolate demonstrated by cDNA hybridization and immunocytochemistry. Brown, H.R., Goller, N.L., Thormar, H., Rudelli, R., Tourtellotte, W.W., Shapshak, P., Boostanfar, R., Wisniewski, H.M. Acta Neuropathol. (1987) [Pubmed]
  25. Diversity of matrix protein in subacute sclerosing panencephalitis and measles virus-infected cells. Haga, T., Yoshikawa, Y., Yamanouchi, K. Microbiol. Immunol. (1990) [Pubmed]
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