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Gene Review

Yp1  -  Yolk protein 1

Drosophila melanogaster

Synonyms: CG2985, DmYP1, Dmel\CG2985, VG1, VIT1Dm, ...
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Disease relevance of Yp1


High impact information on Yp1


Biological context of Yp1


Anatomical context of Yp1

  • In Drosophila three yolk polypeptides (YP1, YP2 and YP3) are synthesized at two sites in the adult female: in the fat body tissue, from which they are transported via the haemolymph to the ovary, and in the ovarian follicle cells which surround the developing oocytes [9].
  • Transcripts from the introduced Yp1 were not found in male flies but appeared on a normal developmental schedule in adult females, accumulating in their body walls and ovarian follicles but not in guts or malpighian tubules [10].
  • Immunogold studies demonstrate that newly synthesized YPs in the normal and mutant strains share secretory vesicles with putative, vitelline membrane proteins and that the translocation of follicle cell YP is not through the membrane along the interfollicular spaces but directly through the plasmalemma facing the oocyte [2].
  • The globules are also incapable of passing into the hemolymph but they are morphologically distinct from those of fs(1)1163 [2].
  • YP-containing aggregates, ultrastructurally similar to those in the fat body of each respective mutant, were found in the space between the plasmalemma and the vitelline membrane and embedded within the membrane itself [2].

Associations of Yp1 with chemical compounds

  • Transformed male flies do not exhibit ADH activity when injected with 20-hydroxyecdysone while synthesis of native yolk proteins is induced [11].
  • One component of the system is the tetracycline-controlled transactivator gene under the control of the fat body and female-specific transcription enhancer from the yolk protein 1 gene [12].
  • Estradiol induced a vitellogenin gene transcript of 6500 nucleotides at 6 h and reached a maximum at 72 h after stimulation [13].
  • It is suggested that transcription of the YP genes is under the cell-autonomous control of the sex genes and that the sex genes do not exert their effect by modulating the levels of steroid hormones in adults [14].

Other interactions of Yp1


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Yp1

  • Densitometry of fluorographs and gels has been used to compare the amount of the smallest vitellogenin polypeptide, yolk protein 3, synthesised by each tissue [20].
  • It was found that during epiboly of the zebrafish embryo, the movement of the outer epithelium (enveloping layer) over the yolk cell surface involves the constriction of marginal cells [21].
  • An electrophoretic mobility shift assay was used to study VG1 binding to labeled HA 8-, 10-, 20-, 30-, and 40-mers, and although no stable VG1 binding was observed to labeled 8-mers, the equilibrium dissociation constant (100 nM) for VG1 with HA(10) was estimated from densitometry analysis of the free oligosaccharide [22].


  1. Processing and secretion of a mutant yolk polypeptide in Drosophila. Minoo, P., Postlethwait, J.H. Biochem. Genet. (1985) [Pubmed]
  2. Mutant yolk proteins lead to female sterility in Drosophila. Butterworth, F.M., Burde, V.S., Bownes, M. Dev. Biol. (1992) [Pubmed]
  3. A tissue-specific transcription enhancer from the Drosophila yolk protein 1 gene. Garabedian, M.J., Shepherd, B.M., Wensink, P.C. Cell (1986) [Pubmed]
  4. Genetic analysis of the hormonally regulated yolk polypeptide genes in D. melanogaster. Postlethwait, J.H., Jowett, T. Cell (1980) [Pubmed]
  5. The isolation and characterization of Drosophila yolk protein genes. Barnett, T., Pachl, C., Gergen, J.P., Wensink, P.C. Cell (1980) [Pubmed]
  6. The nucleotide sequence of the gene coding for Drosophila melanogaster yolk protein 3. Garabedian, M.J., Shirras, A.D., Bownes, M., Wensink, P.C. Gene (1987) [Pubmed]
  7. Upstream sequences modulate in vitro transcription from Drosophila yolk protein genes I and II. Voss, D., Pongs, O. Eur. J. Biochem. (1986) [Pubmed]
  8. Genetically modified yolk proteins precipitate in the adult Drosophila fat body. Butterworth, F.M., Bownes, M., Burde, V.S. J. Cell Biol. (1991) [Pubmed]
  9. Reduced stability of RNA coding for yolk polypeptide 3 in Drosophila melanogaster ovary. Williams, J.L., Bownes, M. Eur. J. Biochem. (1986) [Pubmed]
  10. Sex- and cell-specific regulation of yolk polypeptide genes introduced into Drosophila by P-element-mediated gene transfer. Tamura, T., Kunert, C., Postlethwait, J. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1985) [Pubmed]
  11. Separate DNA sequences are required for normal female and ecdysone-induced male expression of Drosophila melanogaster yolk protein 1. Shirras, A.D., Bownes, M. Mol. Gen. Genet. (1987) [Pubmed]
  12. A repressible female-specific lethal genetic system for making transgenic insect strains suitable for a sterile-release program. Heinrich, J.C., Scott, M.J. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2000) [Pubmed]
  13. Cloning, characterisation and expression of vitellogenin gene of Oreochromis aureus (Teleostei, Cichlidae). Ding, J.L., Ho, B., Valotaire, Y., LeGuellec, K., Lim, E.H., Tay, S.P., Lam, T.J. Biochem. Int. (1990) [Pubmed]
  14. The regulation of yolk protein gene expression in Drosophila melanogaster. Bownes, M., Dempster, M., Blair, M. Ciba Found. Symp. (1983) [Pubmed]
  15. Vitellogenin in Drosophila melanogaster: a comparison of the YPI and YPII genes and their transcription products. Hovemann, B., Galler, R. Nucleic Acids Res. (1982) [Pubmed]
  16. In situ hybridization analysis of chromosomal homologies in Drosophila melanogaster and Drosophila virilis. Whiting, J.H., Pliley, M.D., Farmer, J.L., Jeffery, D.E. Genetics (1989) [Pubmed]
  17. Identification and expression pattern of mago nashi during zebrafish development. Pozzoli, O., Gilardelli, C.N., Sordino, P., Doniselli, S., Lamia, C.L., Cotelli, F. Gene Expr. Patterns (2004) [Pubmed]
  18. A DNA-binding activity, TRAC, specific for the TRA element of the transferrin receptor gene copurifies with the Ku autoantigen. Roberts, M.R., Han, Y., Fienberg, A., Hunihan, L., Ruddle, F.H. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1994) [Pubmed]
  19. Use of promoter fusions in Drosophila genetics: characterization of a YP1-ADH fusion gene. Aprison, B.S., Osterbur, D.L., Bonner, J.J. Dev. Genet. (1989) [Pubmed]
  20. Ovarian and fat-body vitellogenin synthesis in Drosophila melanogaster. Isaac, P.G., Bownes, M. Eur. J. Biochem. (1982) [Pubmed]
  21. Coordinated cell-shape changes control epithelial movement in zebrafish and Drosophila. Köppen, M., Fernández, B.G., Carvalho, L., Jacinto, A., Heisenberg, C.P. Development (2006) [Pubmed]
  22. Preparation and application of biologically active fluorescent hyaluronan oligosaccharides. Seyfried, N.T., Blundell, C.D., Day, A.J., Almond, A. Glycobiology (2005) [Pubmed]
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