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MeSH Review

Vitelline Membrane

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High impact information on Vitelline Membrane

  • Several genes are normally required for activating tor and appear to define a system in which a gene product tethered to the extracellular vitelline membrane at each end of the egg provides a local source for an extracellular tor ligand [1].
  • A new protein fold with internal symmetry has been observed in two proteins: vitelline membrane outer layer protein I (VMO-I) and delta-endotoxin [2].
  • Large, immature starfish oocytes, arrested in prophase I of meiosis (germinal vesicle stage), underwent vitelline membrane elevation when treated with divalent ionophore A-23187 or starfish sperm [3].
  • The protein was found to be identical or closely related to ovomucin, a 600 X 10(3) relative molecular mass glycoprotein, and a major constituent of the vitelline membrane of the avian yolk [4].
  • Trunk (Trk), the proposed ligand for Tor, is secreted as an inactive precursor into the perivitelline fluid that lies between the embryonic membrane and the vitelline membrane (VM), the inner layer of the eggshell [5].

Biological context of Vitelline Membrane


Anatomical context of Vitelline Membrane


Associations of Vitelline Membrane with chemical compounds

  • A class of six mutants with potential vitelline membrane defects was identified on the basis of the response of mutant eggs to hypochlorite solutions [14].
  • The predicted protein had unusually high contents of alanine, histidine, and proline and contained a region of hydrophobic amino acids that was highly conserved in the predicted protein of the D. melanogaster vitelline membrane protein genes [15].
  • As observed by 33258 Hoechst staining and fluorescent microscopy, these sequences are consistently found to be located on the sides of the nuclei nearest to the vitelline membrane [16].
  • Pyruvate kinase type M2 from vitelline membrane was obtained in a homogeneous form after a 1150-fold purification to a specific enzymatic activity of 450 mumol X min-1 X mg-1 [6].
  • The ionophore caused release of nine proteins and six of them were characterized and found to be a masquerade-like protein, a masquerade-like serine proteinase, a mannose receptor protein, a vitelline membrane outer layer protein I, and two anti-microbial peptides [17].

Gene context of Vitelline Membrane

  • The dec-1 gene, which is required for proper eggshell assembly, produces three proproteins that are cleaved within the vitelline membrane layer to multiple derivatives [18].
  • On the contrary, in the fs(1)Nasrat and fs(1)polehole alleles showing defects only at the termini of the embryo the vitelline membrane is properly formed, confirming a multifunctional activity of their gene products [12].
  • A study was made of the localization and assembly of the VM32E protein, a putative vitelline membrane component of the Drosophila eggshell [19].
  • Immunoelectron microscopy was used to follow the distribution of four different eggshell proteins in the assembling and mature eggshell. sV23 and sV17, follicle cell proteins synthesized during the early stages of eggshell formation (stages 8-10), were distributed within the vitelline membrane layer at all stages [20].
  • Our results suggest that the products of fs(1)Nas and fs(1)ph are required for the stability of the vitelline membrane and are also involved in a morphogenetic pathway necessary for the correct differentiation of the terminal regions of the embryo [21].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Vitelline Membrane


  1. The torso receptor localizes as well as transduces the spatial signal specifying terminal body pattern in Drosophila. Casanova, J., Struhl, G. Nature (1993) [Pubmed]
  2. The beta-prism: a new folding motif. Shimizu, T., Morikawa, K. Trends Biochem. Sci. (1996) [Pubmed]
  3. Cytoplasmic activation of starfish oocytes by sperm and divalent ionophore A-23187. Schuetz, A.W. J. Cell Biol. (1975) [Pubmed]
  4. An ovomucin-like protein on the surface of migrating primordial germ cells of the chick and rat. Halfter, W., Schurer, B., Hasselhorn, H.M., Christ, B., Gimpel, E., Epperlein, H.H. Development (1996) [Pubmed]
  5. The Drosophila embryonic patterning determinant torsolike is a component of the eggshell. Stevens, L.M., Beuchle, D., Jurcsak, J., Tong, X., Stein, D. Curr. Biol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  6. Purified pyruvate kinases type M2 from unfertilized hen's egg are substrates of protein kinase C. Noda, S., Horn, F., Linder, D., Schoner, W. Eur. J. Biochem. (1986) [Pubmed]
  7. Hydrolysis of the hen egg vitelline membrane by cock sperm acrosin and other enzymes. Ho, J.J., Meizel, S. J. Exp. Zool. (1975) [Pubmed]
  8. Characterization of vitelline membrane outer layer protein I, VMO-I: amino acid sequence and structural stability. Kido, S., Doi, Y., Kim, F., Morishita, E., Narita, H., Kanaya, S., Ohkubo, T., Nishikawa, K., Yao, T., Ooi, T. J. Biochem. (1995) [Pubmed]
  9. Ovulation triggers activation of Drosophila oocytes. Heifetz, Y., Yu, J., Wolfner, M.F. Dev. Biol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  10. Mutant yolk proteins lead to female sterility in Drosophila. Butterworth, F.M., Burde, V.S., Bownes, M. Dev. Biol. (1992) [Pubmed]
  11. Highly phosphorylated region of chicken riboflavin-binding protein: chemical characterization and 31P NMR studies. Miller, M.S., Mas, M.T., White, H.B. Biochemistry (1984) [Pubmed]
  12. Drosophila vitelline membrane cross-linking requires the fs(1)Nasrat, fs(1)polehole and chorion genes activities. Cernilogar, F.M., Fabbri, F., Andrenacci, D., Taddei, C., Gargiulo, G. Dev. Genes Evol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  13. CO2 production of the chick embryo during the first day of post-laying development. Raddatz, E., Kucera, P. Respiration physiology. (1988) [Pubmed]
  14. Molecular analysis and rescue of a vitelline membrane mutant in Drosophila. Savant, S.S., Waring, G.L. Dev. Biol. (1989) [Pubmed]
  15. Structure, expression, and hormonal control of genes from the mosquito, Aedes aegypti, which encode proteins similar to the vitelline membrane proteins of Drosophila melanogaster. Lin, Y., Hamblin, M.T., Edwards, M.J., Barillas-Mury, C., Kanost, M.R., Knipple, D.C., Wolfner, M.F., Hagedorn, H.H. Dev. Biol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  16. Non-random position of the A-T rich DNA sequences in early embryos of Drosophila virilis. Ellison, J.R., Howard, G.C. Chromosoma (1981) [Pubmed]
  17. Exocytosis and proteomic analysis of the vesicle content of granular hemocytes from a crayfish. Sricharoen, S., Kim, J.J., Tunkijjanukij, S., Söderhäll, I. Dev. Comp. Immunol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  18. fc177, a minor dec-1 proprotein, is necessary to prevent ectopic aggregation of the endochorion during eggshell assembly in Drosophila. Mauzy-Melitz, D., Waring, G.L. Dev. Biol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  19. Specific domains drive VM32E protein distribution and integration in Drosophila eggshell layers. Andrenacci, D., Cernilogar, F.M., Taddel, C., Rotoli, D., Cavaliere, V., Graziani, F., Gargiulo, G. J. Cell. Sci. (2001) [Pubmed]
  20. Eggshell assembly in Drosophila: processing and localization of vitelline membrane and chorion proteins. Pascucci, T., Perrino, J., Mahowald, A.P., Waring, G.L. Dev. Biol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  21. Genetic analysis of two female-sterile loci affecting eggshell integrity and embryonic pattern formation in Drosophila melanogaster. Degelmann, A., Hardy, P.A., Mahowald, A.P. Genetics (1990) [Pubmed]
  22. Crystallization and preliminary crystallographic data of vitelline membrane outer layer protein I, VMO-I. Shimizu, T., Morikawa, K., Kido, S., Doi, Y. J. Mol. Biol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  23. Potential factors affecting embryo survival and clinical outcome with cryopreserved pronuclear human embryos. Marrs, R.P., Greene, J., Stone, B.A. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  24. Cryopreservation of Musca domestica (Diptera: Muscidae) embryos. Wang, W.B., Leopold, R.A., Nelson, D.R., Freeman, T.P. Cryobiology (2000) [Pubmed]
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