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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)
MeSH Review


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Disease relevance of Hemolymph


Psychiatry related information on Hemolymph


High impact information on Hemolymph

  • We show here that the mature form of Spätzle triggers a Toll-dependent immune response after injection into the hemolymph of flies [7].
  • These defense molecules include clotting factors, proteinase inhibitors, lectins, antimicrobial peptides and other humoral factors found mainly in the hemolymph [8].
  • Microbial challenge induces its removal from the hemolymph through Toll-dependent transcription of an acute phase immune reaction component [9].
  • Immunocytochemistry using a mAb to phosphorylated tyrosine residues revealed intense staining of the tips of most filopodia of Aplysia axons growing slowly on a polylysine substrate, but of few filopodia of axons growing rapidly on a substrate coated with Aplysia hemolymph, which has growth-promoting material [10].
  • The products secreted into the hemolymph or into the culture medium were examined by acrylamide gel electrophoresis [11].

Chemical compound and disease context of Hemolymph


Biological context of Hemolymph

  • Although alterations in the quantity of S6 mRNA throughout the last larval instar and early pupal-adult development were not well correlated with the hemolymph ecdysteroid titer, developmental expression and phosphorylation of S6 were temporally correlated with PTTH release and the hemolymph ecdysteroid titer [17].
  • Dopachrome conversion factor isolated from the hemolymph of Manduca sexta larvae, which is devoid of any tyrosinase activity, exhibits a narrow substrate specificity and readily bleaches the iminochromes derived from the oxidation of L-dopa, L-dopa methyl ester, and alpha-methyl-L-dopa, but failed to attack the corresponding D-isomers [18].
  • Sequence comparisons reveal that the EP protein possesses little homology to any presently known matrix proteins previously isolated from mollusc shells but rather it highly resembles a heavy metal binding protein and a histidine-rich glycoprotein, both from the hemolymph of M. edulis [19].
  • Thermal hysteresis activity of DAFPs is dependent not only on AFP concentration but also on the presence of enhancers that may be either proteins (including other hemolymph DAFPs) or low-molecular mass enhancers such as glycerol [20].
  • Indeed, X/Y; dsx/dsx is the only genotype in which hemolymph vitellogenins are detected in the X/Y flies [21].

Anatomical context of Hemolymph


Associations of Hemolymph with chemical compounds

  • Here, we show that ablation of Drosophila insulin-like peptide-producing median neurosecretory cells in the brain leads to increased fasting glucose levels in the hemolymph of adults similar to that found in diabetic mammals [27].
  • Here we show that injection of serotonin into the hemolymph of subordinate, freely moving animals results in a renewed willingness of these animals to engage the dominants in further agonistic encounters [28].
  • Such disks can be made to grow at a normal rate by supplementing the culture medium with an optimal concentration of the steroid hormone 20-hydroxyecdysone and with hemolymph taken from growing larvae [29].
  • Chloride was higher in the hemolymph, 57.6 +/- 7.84, than in the lumen, 3.51 +/- 2.58, whereas bicarbonate was higher in the lumen, 58.1 +/- 7.34, than the hemolymph, 3.96 +/- 2.89 [30].
  • Cryptocyanin has no phenoloxidase activity, although a phenoloxidase is present in the hemolymph [31].

Gene context of Hemolymph

  • In Drosophila, microbial infection activates an antimicrobial defense system involving the activation of proteolytic cascades in the hemolymph and intracellular signaling pathways, the immune deficiency (imd) and Toll pathways, in immune-responsive tissues [32].
  • Moreover, PGRP-LE activates the prophenoloxidase cascade, a proteolytic cascade in the hemolymph [32].
  • Immune induction has been shown for three of the latter, namely Tiggrin and two unknown proteins (GC15825 and CG15293) that we now propose function in hemolymph clotting [33].
  • The globules are also incapable of passing into the hemolymph but they are morphologically distinct from those of fs(1)1163 [34].
  • Transfusion experiments with hemolymph and pure invertase showed that sequestration of invertase depended on its attachment to YP [35].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Hemolymph


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  2. Drosophila immunity: a large-scale in vivo RNAi screen identifies five serine proteases required for Toll activation. Kambris, Z., Brun, S., Jang, I.H., Nam, H.J., Romeo, Y., Takahashi, K., Lee, W.J., Ueda, R., Lemaitre, B. Curr. Biol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  3. Insect immunity. III. Purification and partial characterization of immune protein P5 from hemolymph of Hyalophora cecropia pupae. Pye, A.E., Boman, H.G. Infect. Immun. (1977) [Pubmed]
  4. Nitrite and nitrate levels in individual molluscan neurons: single-cell capillary electrophoresis analysis. Cruz, L., Moroz, L.L., Gillette, R., Sweedler, J.V. J. Neurochem. (1997) [Pubmed]
  5. Key disulfide bonds in an insect hormone binding protein: cDNA cloning of a juvenile hormone binding protein of Heliothis virescens and ligand binding by native and mutant forms. Wojtasek, H., Prestwich, G.D. Biochemistry (1995) [Pubmed]
  6. Plant phenolics as dietary antioxidants for herbivorous insects: a test with genetically modified tobacco. Johnson, K.S., Felton, G.W. J. Chem. Ecol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  7. Binding of the Drosophila cytokine Spätzle to Toll is direct and establishes signaling. Weber, A.N., Tauszig-Delamasure, S., Hoffmann, J.A., Lelièvre, E., Gascan, H., Ray, K.P., Morse, M.A., Imler, J.L., Gay, N.J. Nat. Immunol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  8. The molecular basis of innate immunity in the horseshoe crab. Iwanaga, S. Curr. Opin. Immunol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  9. A serpin mutant links Toll activation to melanization in the host defence of Drosophila. Ligoxygakis, P., Pelte, N., Ji, C., Leclerc, V., Duvic, B., Belvin, M., Jiang, H., Hoffmann, J.A., Reichhart, J.M. EMBO J. (2002) [Pubmed]
  10. Regulated tyrosine phosphorylation at the tips of growth cone filopodia. Wu, D.Y., Goldberg, D.J. J. Cell Biol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  11. Fat body: a site of hemoglobin synthesis in Chironomus thummi (diptera). Bergtrom, G., Laufer, H., Rogers, R. J. Cell Biol. (1976) [Pubmed]
  12. Role for mannose-sensitive hemagglutinin in promoting interactions between Vibrio cholerae El Tor and mussel hemolymph. Zampini, M., Canesi, L., Betti, M., Ciacci, C., Tarsi, R., Gallo, G., Pruzzo, C. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  13. Transfer of immunity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa P11-1 in Galleria mellonella larvae. De Verno, P.J., Aston, W.P., Chadwick, J.S. Dev. Comp. Immunol. (1983) [Pubmed]
  14. Toxicity of cypermethrin and fenitrothion on the hemolymph carbohydrates, head acetylcholinesterase, and thoracic muscle Na+, K+-ATPase of emerging honeybees (Apis mellifera mellifera. L). Bendahou, N., Bounias, M., Fleche, C. Ecotoxicol. Environ. Saf. (1999) [Pubmed]
  15. Membrane-associated carbonic anhydrase in gills of the blue crab, Callinectes sapidus. Henry, R.P. Am. J. Physiol. (1987) [Pubmed]
  16. Characterization of some new insect-derived acholeplasmas. Tully, J.G., Rose, D.L., Whitcomb, R.F., Hackett, K.J., Clark, T.B., Henegar, R.B., Clark, E., Carle, P., Bove, J.M. Isr. J. Med. Sci. (1987) [Pubmed]
  17. Molecular cloning, developmental expression, and phosphorylation of ribosomal protein S6 in the endocrine gland responsible for insect molting. Song, Q., Gilbert, L.I. J. Biol. Chem. (1997) [Pubmed]
  18. Quinone methide as a new intermediate in eumelanin biosynthesis. Sugumaran, M., Semensi, V. J. Biol. Chem. (1991) [Pubmed]
  19. Structural characterization of the major extrapallial fluid protein of the mollusc Mytilus edulis: implications for function. Yin, Y., Huang, J., Paine, M.L., Reinhold, V.N., Chasteen, N.D. Biochemistry (2005) [Pubmed]
  20. A thaumatin-like protein from larvae of the beetle Dendroides canadensis enhances the activity of antifreeze proteins. Wang, L., Duman, J.G. Biochemistry (2006) [Pubmed]
  21. Interactions between sex-transformation mutants of Drosophila melanogaster. I. Hemolymph vitellogenins and gonad morphology. Ota, T., Fukunaga, A., Kawabe, M., Oishi, K. Genetics (1981) [Pubmed]
  22. A serine protease zymogen functions as a pattern-recognition receptor for lipopolysaccharides. Ariki, S., Koori, K., Osaki, T., Motoyama, K., Inamori, K., Kawabata, S. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2004) [Pubmed]
  23. Identification and activation of storage protein receptor of Sarcophaga peregrina fat body by 20-hydroxyecdysone. Ueno, K., Ohsawa, F., Natori, S. J. Biol. Chem. (1983) [Pubmed]
  24. A heme-binding protein from hemolymph and oocytes of the blood-sucking insect, Rhodnius prolixus. Isolation and characterization. Oliveira, P.L., Kawooya, J.K., Ribeiro, J.M., Meyer, T., Poorman, R., Alves, E.W., Walker, F.A., Machado, E.A., Nussenzveig, R.H., Padovan, G.J. J. Biol. Chem. (1995) [Pubmed]
  25. Purification of three antibacterial proteins from the culture medium of NIH-Sape-4, an embryonic cell line of Sarcophaga peregrina. Matsuyama, K., Natori, S. J. Biol. Chem. (1988) [Pubmed]
  26. The lesswright mutation activates Rel-related proteins, leading to overproduction of larval hemocytes in Drosophila melanogaster. Huang, L., Ohsako, S., Tanda, S. Dev. Biol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  27. Longer lifespan, altered metabolism, and stress resistance in Drosophila from ablation of cells making insulin-like ligands. Broughton, S.J., Piper, M.D., Ikeya, T., Bass, T.M., Jacobson, J., Driege, Y., Martinez, P., Hafen, E., Withers, D.J., Leevers, S.J., Partridge, L. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2005) [Pubmed]
  28. Serotonin and aggressive motivation in crustaceans: altering the decision to retreat. Huber, R., Smith, K., Delago, A., Isaksson, K., Kravitz, E.A. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1997) [Pubmed]
  29. Bombyxin is a growth factor for wing imaginal disks in Lepidoptera. Nijhout, H.F., Grunert, L.W. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2002) [Pubmed]
  30. Alkalinization by chloride/bicarbonate pathway in larval mosquito midgut. Boudko, D.Y., Moroz, L.L., Harvey, W.R., Linser, P.J. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2001) [Pubmed]
  31. Cryptocyanin, a crustacean molting protein: evolutionary link with arthropod hemocyanins and insect hexamerins. Terwilliger, N.B., Dangott, L., Ryan, M. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1999) [Pubmed]
  32. Overexpression of a pattern-recognition receptor, peptidoglycan-recognition protein-LE, activates imd/relish-mediated antibacterial defense and the prophenoloxidase cascade in Drosophila larvae. Takehana, A., Katsuyama, T., Yano, T., Oshima, Y., Takada, H., Aigaki, T., Kurata, S. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2002) [Pubmed]
  33. Isolation and characterization of hemolymph clotting factors in Drosophila melanogaster by a pullout method. Scherfer, C., Karlsson, C., Loseva, O., Bidla, G., Goto, A., Havemann, J., Dushay, M.S., Theopold, U. Curr. Biol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  34. Mutant yolk proteins lead to female sterility in Drosophila. Butterworth, F.M., Burde, V.S., Bownes, M. Dev. Biol. (1992) [Pubmed]
  35. Vitellogenesis in Drosophila: sequestration of a yolk polypeptide/invertase fusion protein into developing oocytes. Yan, Y.L., Postlethwait, J.H. Dev. Biol. (1990) [Pubmed]
  36. Evidence for the involvement of opioid neuropeptides in the adherence and migration of immunocompetent invertebrate hemocytes. Stefano, G.B., Leung, M.K., Zhao, X.H., Scharrer, B. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1989) [Pubmed]
  37. Invertebrate cytokines: tunicate cell proliferation stimulated by an interleukin 1-like molecule. Raftos, D.A., Cooper, E.L., Habicht, G.S., Beck, G. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1991) [Pubmed]
  38. Purification and characterization of an O-acetylsialic acid-specific lectin from a marine crab Cancer antennarius. Ravindranath, M.H., Higa, H.H., Cooper, E.L., Paulson, J.C. J. Biol. Chem. (1985) [Pubmed]
  39. Synthesis and binding affinity of an iodinated juvenile hormone. Prestwich, G.D., Eng, W.S., Robles, S., Vogt, R.G., Wiśniewski, J.R., Wawrzeńczyk, C. J. Biol. Chem. (1988) [Pubmed]
  40. Synthesis of two storage proteins during larval development of the tobacco hornworm, Manduca sexta. Webb, B.A., Riddiford, L.M. Dev. Biol. (1988) [Pubmed]
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