The world's first wiki where authorship really matters (Nature Genetics, 2008). Due credit and reputation for authors. Imagine a global collaborative knowledge base for original thoughts. Search thousands of articles and collaborate with scientists around the globe.

wikigene or wiki gene protein drug chemical gene disease author authorship tracking collaborative publishing evolutionary knowledge reputation system wiki2.0 global collaboration genes proteins drugs chemicals diseases compound
Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)



Gene Review

ARR3  -  arrestin 3, retinal (X-arrestin)

Homo sapiens

Synonyms: ARRX, Arrestin-C, C-arrestin, CAR, Cone arrestin, ...
Welcome! If you are familiar with the subject of this article, you can contribute to this open access knowledge base by deleting incorrect information, restructuring or completely rewriting any text. Read more.

Disease relevance of ARR3


High impact information on ARR3


Biological context of ARR3

  • The human gene for X-arrestin at Xcen-Xq22 has been shown to be approximately 20kb in size and to consist of 17 exons and 16 introns [4].
  • The common promoter elements between the cone-expressed genes, X-arrestin and color opsins, include the TATA box, PCE-1, and CRX-binding sequences, the combination of which might be important for directing cone-specific expression [4].
  • Double labeling with peanut agglutinin (PNA) and wheat germ agglutinin (WGA) supported a cone-dominant phenotype for the surviving photoreceptors in the LCA retina, as did double labeling for cone arrestin, and rod and cone recoverin [5].
  • GRK1-dependent phosphorylation of S and M opsins and their binding to cone arrestin during cone phototransduction in the mouse retina [6].
  • RA's effect was blocked by either RNA or protein synthesis inhibitors; however, hCAR mRNA's stability was not affected by RA, as determined by RNA decay experiments [1].

Anatomical context of ARR3

  • The cone arrestin signal was restricted to the residual photoreceptor inner segments and was not detected in the cell bodies, axons, or axon terminals of the surviving photoreceptors [5].
  • In order to delineate the promoter structure necessary for the pan-cone-specific expression of X-arrestin, the expression of the gene in retinoblastoma cell lines was investigated, and a structure-function analysis of the promoter was conducted in the appropriate cellular substrate [7].

Associations of ARR3 with chemical compounds


Enzymatic interactions of ARR3

  • Binding studies revealed no binding of cArr to rhodopsin regardless of whether it was bleached and/or phosphorylated. cArr also failed to bind to heparin-Sepharose under conditions which rod arrestin (rArr) bound to the column [9].

Other interactions of ARR3

  • In single and double label experiments, the localization of X-arrestin immunoreactivity was compared with immunolabeling patterns obtained with antibodies to red/green cone opsin, rhodopsin, and S-antigen [10].
  • The majority of cones in the T-17-M and P-23-H retinas were cytologically normal but showed loss of immunoreactivity for the cytoplasmic proteins 7G6, calbindin, and X-arrestin [11].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of ARR3


  1. Retinoic acid upregulates cone arrestin expression in retinoblastoma cells through a Cis element in the distal promoter region. Li, A., Zhu, X., Craft, C.M. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (2002) [Pubmed]
  2. Cone arrestin identified by targeting expression of a functional family. Craft, C.M., Whitmore, D.H., Wiechmann, A.F. J. Biol. Chem. (1994) [Pubmed]
  3. Gene expression networks underlying retinoic acid-induced differentiation of human retinoblastoma cells. Li, A., Zhu, X., Brown, B., Craft, C.M. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (2003) [Pubmed]
  4. Isolation and characterization of the human X-arrestin gene. Sakuma, H., Murakami, A., Fujimaki, T., Inana, G. Gene (1998) [Pubmed]
  5. Predominant rod photoreceptor degeneration in Leber congenital amaurosis. van der Spuy, J., Munro, P.M., Luthert, P.J., Preising, M.N., Bek, T., Heegaard, S., Cheetham, M.E. Mol. Vis. (2005) [Pubmed]
  6. GRK1-dependent phosphorylation of S and M opsins and their binding to cone arrestin during cone phototransduction in the mouse retina. Zhu, X., Brown, B., Li, A., Mears, A.J., Swaroop, A., Craft, C.M. J. Neurosci. (2003) [Pubmed]
  7. Truncation and mutagenesis analysis of the human X-arrestin gene promoter. Fujimaki, T., Huang, Z.Y., Kitagawa, H., Sakuma, H., Murakami, A., Kanai, A., McLaren, M.J., Inana, G. Gene (2004) [Pubmed]
  8. Glycine receptors in a population of adult mammalian cones. Balse, E., Tessier, L.H., Forster, V., Roux, M.J., Sahel, J.A., Picaud, S. J. Physiol. (Lond.) (2006) [Pubmed]
  9. Purification and characterization of bovine cone arrestin (cArr). Maeda, T., Ohguro, H., Sohma, H., Kuroki, Y., Wada, H., Okisaka, S., Murakami, A. FEBS Lett. (2000) [Pubmed]
  10. Immunolocalization of X-arrestin in human cone photoreceptors. Sakuma, H., Inana, G., Murakami, A., Higashide, T., McLaren, M.J. FEBS Lett. (1996) [Pubmed]
  11. Loss of cone molecular markers in rhodopsin-mutant human retinas with retinitis pigmentosa. John, S.K., Smith, J.E., Aguirre, G.D., Milam, A.H. Mol. Vis. (2000) [Pubmed]
WikiGenes - Universities