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Gene Review

Cd2  -  Cd2 molecule

Rattus norvegicus

Synonyms: CD2R, LFA-2, LFA-3 receptor, LFA2, OX-34, ...
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Disease relevance of Cd2

  • Experimental autoimmune neuritis (EAN) of Lewis rats, an inflammatory demyelinating neuropathy and model of the human Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS), was used to evaluate the novel T cell directed immunotherapy with the anti-CD2 monoclonal antibody (mAb) OX34 [1].
  • The immunotherapeutic potential of three anti-rat CD2 monoclonal antibodies (mAb) (OX34, OX54, OX55) and the combination of OX54 with OX55 was tested in Lewis rat experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) [2].
  • METHODS: Established AA was treated with dexamethasone (1 mg/kg body weight) for two days plus OX34 mAb or control mAb over three days (2 mg and then 1 mg) starting at different time points of the disease [3].
  • We investigated the effect of a monoclonal antibody against CD2 molecules (OX34) in preventing the induction of experimental autoimmune myocarditis (EAM) induced by immunizing Lewis rats with cardiac myosin [4].

High impact information on Cd2

  • The CD2 antigen can mediate mitogenesis of T lymphocytes after binding combinations of monoclonal antibodies [5].
  • Crosslinking of CD2 antigen on T lymphocytes and natural killer (NK) cells leads to a rise in cytoplasmic-free Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) [6].
  • These findings demonstrate that OX-34 identifies a structure on the surface of RNK-16 cells that can stimulate the generation of InsP3, and they suggest that this structure can regulate signal transduction during target-cell recognition by NK cells [7].
  • Inositol trisphosphate is generated by a rat natural killer cell tumor in response to target cells or to crosslinked monoclonal antibody OX-34: possible signaling role for the OX-34 determinant during activation by target cells [7].
  • Electrophysiological and histological investigation of sciatic nerves 17 and 18 days p.i. respectively, also revealed an inhibitory effect of OX34 on EAN-associated functional and morphological nerve damage [1].

Biological context of Cd2


Anatomical context of Cd2

  • Structure of domain 1 of rat T lymphocyte CD2 antigen [12].
  • In contrast to the other mAb, OX34 persisted on lymphocytes for at least 11 days, which may explain its unique suppressive effect on EAE after a single injection before immunization [2].
  • Immunohistological and immunocytological studies showed OX-6, OX-34, OX-35 and OX-42 positive cells were present at days 13 and 20 of pregnancy, in sections of metrial glands and in the cell suspensions prepared for the cytotoxicity assays [13].
  • Lymph node cells in OX34-treated rats had no proliferative responses to cardiac myosin-rod, but the proliferation was restored when recombinant IL-2 was added [4].
  • It is discussed whether DBTC might disturb the interaction of early thymocytes and thymic epithelium, probably by an interaction with the CD2 antigen [14].

Associations of Cd2 with chemical compounds

  • Caffeine-dependent oscillations are insensitive to an antagonist of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABAA) receptors (10 microM bicuculline), L-type Ca2+ channels (10 muM nicardipine), L-type and N-type voltage-dependent calcium channels (100 microM Cd2)), and T-type Ca2+ channels (100 microM Ni2+) [15].
  • 78 young rats were divided into two main groups: controls (C1, C2, C4) and cadmium groups (Cd1, Cd2, Cd4) [16].
  • In DP rats, all anti-CD2 MAb prevented spontaneous diabetes and the adoptive transfer of diabetes with Con-A--stimulated acute diabetic spleen cells; OX34 prevented Poly I:C induced accelerated onset of diabetes and the adoptive transfer of diabetes with Con-A--stimulated RT6.1+ T cell depleted DR splenocytes [17].
  • In addition, early OX34 plus dexamethasone treatment resulted in pronounced clinical improvement and joint protection [3].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Cd2

  • The decibel (dB) values of the maxima were significantly decreased in Cd1 and Cd2 groups compared with the corresponding control groups in all the frequency bands except 16-30 Hz [16].
  • Finally, clinical, electrophysiological and histological signs of adoptive transfer EAN mediated by injection of neuritogenic T helper line cells were prevented or strongly suppressed by OX34-application on the day of cell transfer and 4 days later, underlying the impact of the mAb on the effector phase of the disease [1].
  • To evaluate the effects of OX34 on vascularized allografts, Lewis (RT1(1)) hearts were transplanted heterotopically into Wistar Furth (RT1(u)) rats [8].
  • Administration of OX34 (7 mg/kg/day i.p.), either for 3 consecutive days immediately before or 8 consecutive days immediately after transplantation induced indefinite allograft survival (median survival time: 7, > 150, and > 150 days for control, preoperative treatment, and postoperative treatment, respectively) [18].
  • The mAbs must interact with both the CD2 receptor and an Fc gamma R. CD2 down-modulation is accompanied by changes in the array of other T cell surface receptors that may contribute to mechanisms of anti-CD2-induced immunosuppression [19].


  1. T cell directed immunotherapy of inflammatory demyelination in the peripheral nervous system. Potent suppression of the effector phase of experimental autoimmune neuritis by anti-CD2 antibodies. Jung, S., Toyka, K., Hartung, H.P. Brain (1996) [Pubmed]
  2. Suppression of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in Lewis rats by antibodies against CD2. Jung, S., Toyka, K., Hartung, H.P. Eur. J. Immunol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  3. Initiation and perpetuation of rat adjuvant arthritis is inhibited by the anti-CD2 monoclonal antibody (mAb) OX34. Hoffmann, J.C., Herklotz, C., Zeidler, H., Bayer, B., Rosenthal, H., Westermann, J. Ann. Rheum. Dis. (1997) [Pubmed]
  4. Anti-CD2 monoclonal antibodies prevent the induction of experimental autoimmune myocarditis. Inomata, T., Watanabe, T., Haga, M., Hirahara, H., Abo, T., Okura, Y., Hanawa, H., Kodama, M., Izumi, T. Japanese heart journal. (2000) [Pubmed]
  5. A role in transmembrane signaling for the cytoplasmic domain of the CD2 T lymphocyte surface antigen. He, Q., Beyers, A.D., Barclay, A.N., Williams, A.F. Cell (1988) [Pubmed]
  6. Signal transduction by the CD2 antigen in T cells and natural killer cells: requirement for expression of a functional T cell receptor or binding of antibody Fc to the Fc receptor, Fc gamma RIIIA (CD16). Spruyt, L.L., Glennie, M.J., Beyers, A.D., Williams, A.F. J. Exp. Med. (1991) [Pubmed]
  7. Inositol trisphosphate is generated by a rat natural killer cell tumor in response to target cells or to crosslinked monoclonal antibody OX-34: possible signaling role for the OX-34 determinant during activation by target cells. Seaman, W.E., Eriksson, E., Dobrow, R., Imboden, J.B. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1987) [Pubmed]
  8. Coexistence of Th1- and Th2-type cytokine profiles in anti-CD2 monoclonal antibody-induced tolerance. Krieger, N.R., Most, D., Bromberg, J.S., Holm, B., Huie, P., Sibley, R.K., Dafoe, D.C., Alfrey, E.J. Transplantation (1996) [Pubmed]
  9. Differential immunosuppressive activity of monoclonal CD2 antibodies on allograft rejection versus specific antibody production. Sido, B., Dengler, T.J., Otto, G., Zimmermann, R., Müller, P., Meuer, S.C. Eur. J. Immunol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  10. Apoptosis of alpha beta T lymphocytes in the nervous system in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis: its possible implications for recovery and acquired tolerance. Pender, M.P., McCombe, P.A., Yoong, G., Nguyen, K.B. J. Autoimmun. (1992) [Pubmed]
  11. CD2-SLFA3/T11TS interaction facilitates immune activation and glioma regression by apoptosis. Sarkar, S., Ghosh, A., Mukherjee, J., Chaudhuri, S., Chaudhuri, S. Cancer Biol. Ther. (2004) [Pubmed]
  12. Structure of domain 1 of rat T lymphocyte CD2 antigen. Driscoll, P.C., Cyster, J.G., Campbell, I.D., Williams, A.F. Nature (1991) [Pubmed]
  13. Antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxic activity of cells in the rat metrial gland in pregnancy. Peel, S., Stewart, I.J. Scand. J. Immunol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  14. Organotin-induced thymus atrophy concerns the OX-44+ immature thymocytes. Relation to the interaction between early thymocytes and thymic epithelial cells? Pieters, R.H., Kampinga, J., Bol-Schoenmakers, M., Lam, B.W., Penninks, A.H., Seinen, W. Thymus (1989) [Pubmed]
  15. Caffeine-dependent stimulus-triggered oscillations in the CA3 region of hippocampal slices from rats chronically exposed to lead. He, S.J., Xiao, C., Wu, Z.Y., Ruan, D.Y. Exp. Neurol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  16. Effect of cadmium-induced lipid peroxidation on EEG spectral components. Ağar, A., Yargiçoğlu, P., Sentürk, U.K., Izgüt-Uysal, V.N. Journal of basic and clinical physiology and pharmacology. (1999) [Pubmed]
  17. Anti-CD2 monoclonal antibodies prevent spontaneous and adoptive transfer of diabetes in the BB/Wor rat. Barlow, A.K., Like, A.A. Am. J. Pathol. (1992) [Pubmed]
  18. Long-term survival of cardiac allografts in rats treated before and after surgery with monoclonal antibody to CD2. Hirahara, H., Tsuchida, M., Watanabe, T., Haga, M., Matsumoto, Y., Abo, T., Eguchi, S. Transplantation (1995) [Pubmed]
  19. Anti-CD2 monoclonal antibody-induced receptor changes: down modulation of cell surface CD2. Lin, J., Yon, R.W., Chavin, K.D., Qin, L., Woodward, J., Ding, Y., Yagita, H., Bromberg, J.S. Transplantation (1995) [Pubmed]
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