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Gene Review

CD2  -  CD2 molecule

Bos taurus

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Disease relevance of CD2

  • Because the lymphoma cells were positive for CD3 but not CD79a, and a few were CD2- or WC1-positive, this lymphoma was thought to be of gammadelta T-cell origin [1].
  • Significantly lower numbers of CD2 (44.7%), CD4 (22.8%) and a lower ratio of CD4/CD8 (1.5) were found in animals with tumours compared to a group of cattle free of papillomas (62.3%, 34%, and 2.3, respectively) [2].

High impact information on CD2

  • A genomics approach to the detection of positive selection in cattle: adaptive evolution of the T-cell and natural killer cell-surface protein CD2 [3].
  • These cells were negative for surface Ig, a monocyte/granulocyte marker, and the T lymphocyte antigens CD2, CD6, CD4 and CD8 [4].
  • ConA activated cells were cultured with BHV-1 and stained with monoclonal antibodies specific for virus envelope glycoproteins (gB, gC and gD) and lymphocyte surface proteins (CD2, CD4 and CD8) and a molecule associated with gamma/delta cells [5].
  • Further, 291 and 77 genes showed more than twofold elevation and less than 50% reduction, respectively, in either or both of two CD (CD1 and CD2) placentas in comparison with the CL placenta, but no differential expression between the CL and AI placentas [6].
  • Lymphocytes with the expression of CD2, CD3 or both molecules displayed a similar behaviour [7].

Biological context of CD2

  • Based on tissue distribution and functional characteristics, IL-A26 is believed to recognize the bovine homologue of CD2, designated BoT2, whereas IL-A27/28 reacts with a mature T-cell antigen [8].
  • This expansion in cell numbers involves a shift away from a predominant classic T cell population (CD2 and CD3 positive), to a population where T cell percentages are decreased and B cells (immunoglobulin-bearing) and gamma-delta cells are increased [9].
  • No alterations in other cell phenotypes tested (CD4, CD8, CD2, CD6, B cells, monocytes or MHC class II) were observed, nor were there changes in lymphokine activated killer (LAK), natural killer (NK) cell activity, or oxygen radical formation (assessed by reduction of nitroblue tetrazolium) [10].
  • These results indicate anti-bovine CD2 monoclonal antibody can be utilized with the rosette inhibition test to detect EPF in cattle, and that this assay detects bovine EPF for pregnancy serum at least 24 hr after ovulation [11].

Anatomical context of CD2


Other interactions of CD2

  • Changes in leukocyte subpopulations in the blood of the calves were detected both with routine haematological methods and by FCM using specific monoclonal antibodies directed against CD14, CD45, CD2, CD4, CD8 and WC4 (a specific surface marker for bovine B-lymphocytes) [17].
  • Biochemical studies included the CD2 and CD5 molecules and further demonstrated their similarity to equivalent molecules in other species, confirming the phylogenetic importance of these molecules in immune responses [18].
  • Results were expressed as the percentage of positive stained cells expressing CD2, CD4, CD8, WC1(gamma delta), IgM and class II major histocompatibility complex (MHC-II) molecules, as determined by flow cytometry [19].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of CD2


  1. gammadelta T-cell lymphoma with tropism for various types of epithelium in a cow. Kadota, K., Wada, Y., Ishikawa, Y., Shibahara, T. J. Comp. Pathol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  2. Subpopulations of lymphocytes in cattle naturally infected with papillomavirus. Levkutová, M., Revajová, V., Levkut, M., Leng, L. Acta Vet. Hung. (1998) [Pubmed]
  3. A genomics approach to the detection of positive selection in cattle: adaptive evolution of the T-cell and natural killer cell-surface protein CD2. Lynn, D.J., Freeman, A.R., Murray, C., Bradley, D.G. Genetics (2005) [Pubmed]
  4. Identification of a bovine surface antigen uniquely expressed on CD4-CD8- T cell receptor gamma/delta+ T lymphocytes. Clevers, H., MacHugh, N.D., Bensaid, A., Dunlap, S., Baldwin, C.L., Kaushal, A., Iams, K., Howard, C.J., Morrison, W.I. Eur. J. Immunol. (1990) [Pubmed]
  5. Bovine herpesvirus-1 infects activated CD4+ lymphocytes. Eskra, L., Splitter, G.A. J. Gen. Virol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  6. Early embryonic death-associated changes in genome-wide gene expression profiles in the fetal placenta of the cow carrying somatic nuclear-derived cloned embryo. Oishi, M., Gohma, H., Hashizume, K., Taniguchi, Y., Yasue, H., Takahashi, S., Yamada, T., Sasaki, Y. Mol. Reprod. Dev. (2006) [Pubmed]
  7. Immunolocalization of CD18-positive cells in the bovine ovary. Spanel-Borowski, K., Rahner, P., Ricken, A.M. J. Reprod. Fertil. (1997) [Pubmed]
  8. Monoclonal antibodies which react with bovine T-lymphocyte antigens and induce blastogenesis: tissue distribution and functional characteristics of the target antigens. Baldwin, C.L., Machugh, N.D., Ellis, J.A., Naessens, J., Newson, J., Morrison, W.I. Immunology (1988) [Pubmed]
  9. Effects of gastrointestinal nematode infection on the ruminant immune system. Gasbarre, L.C. Vet. Parasitol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  10. A slow release formulation for recombinant bovine interferon alpha I-1. Hughes, H.P., Rossow, S., Campos, M., Rossi-Campos, A., Janssen, S., Godson, D.L., Daflon, B., Voirol, M.J., Gerber, C., Babiuk, L.A. Antiviral Res. (1994) [Pubmed]
  11. Application of anti-bovine CD2 monoclonal antibody to the rosette inhibition test for detection of early pregnancy factor in cattle. Yoshioka, K., Iwamura, S., Kamomae, H. J. Vet. Med. Sci. (1995) [Pubmed]
  12. Biochemical analysis of bovine T cell antigens with workshop monoclonal antibodies. O'Reilly, K.L., Eskra, L., Splitter, G.A. Vet. Immunol. Immunopathol. (1991) [Pubmed]
  13. Analysis of workshop antibodies to null cells on a non-T/non-B lymphocyte population. O'Reilly, K.L., Splitter, G.A. Vet. Immunol. Immunopathol. (1991) [Pubmed]
  14. Phenotype, growth regulation and cytokine transcription in Ovine Herpesvirus-2 (OHV-2)-infected bovine T-cell lines. Schock, A., Collins, R.A., Reid, H.W. Vet. Immunol. Immunopathol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  15. Modulation of fat-soluble vitamin concentrations and blood mononuclear leukocyte populations in milk replacer-fed calves by dietary vitamin A and beta-carotene. Nonnecke, B.J., Horst, R.L., Waters, W.R., Dubeski, P., Harp, J.A. J. Dairy Sci. (1999) [Pubmed]
  16. Immunohistochemical observations on cellular response in unilocular hydatid lesions and lymph nodes of cattle. Sakamoto, T., Cabrera, P.A. Acta Trop. (2003) [Pubmed]
  17. Changes in the peripheral leukocyte phenotype of calves in clinical cases of bronchopneumonia complicated with chlamydial co-infectious agent. Niemczuk, K., Bednarek, D. Polish journal of veterinary sciences. (2003) [Pubmed]
  18. Biochemical and functional characterization of 8-10C5 (gp120,90), a novel molecule on the surface of bovine T leucocytes. O'Reilly, K.L., Splitter, G.A. Immunology (1990) [Pubmed]
  19. Effects of peripartum stress and health on circulating bovine lymphocyte subsets. Van Kampen, C., Mallard, B.A. Vet. Immunol. Immunopathol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  20. Ostertagia ostertagi: changes in lymphoid populations in the local lymphoid tissues after primary or secondary infection. Gasbarre, L.C. Vet. Parasitol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  21. The effects of a single injection of dexamethasone-21-isonicotinate on the lymphocyte functions of dairy cows at two weeks post partum. Thanasak, J., Jorritsma, R., Hoek, A., Noordhuizen, J.P., Rutten, V.P., Müller, K.E. Vet. Res. (2004) [Pubmed]
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