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Gene Review

Sp6  -  trans-acting transcription factor 6

Mus musculus

Synonyms: 1110025J03Rik, AA591031, AI592962, Epfn, Epiprofin, ...
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Disease relevance of Sp6

  • All other mu Sp6 and kappa Sp6 non-B cell transformants (melanoma, teratoma and macrophage) failed to produce enough Ig to determine whether the Ig proteins were of the correct molecular weights [1].
  • Sp6, a fibrosarcoma, has abundant virus-like particles in the cytoplasm, very often associated with centrioles or basal bodies of a cilium [2].
  • Injection of SCID mice with an anti-trinitrophenyl IgM antibody-producing hybridoma clone, Sp6, following injection of the B1 clone, however, resulted in the development of a 'cell-proliferative' type of glomerular lesion, associated with an accumulation of both antibodies in glomeruli [3].

Psychiatry related information on Sp6

  • Furthermore, we could not detect any mAb carrying an anti-Sp6 Id, but Sp6 did weakly bind to itself [4].

High impact information on Sp6

  • As recipient cells, we used the Sp6-derived mutant hybridoma igk14, which has a deletion of the kappa TNP gene and consequently does not synthesize TNP-specific immunoglobulin M. igk14 retains the mu TNP gene and two additional rearranged kappa genes, denoted kappa M21B1 and kappa M21G [5].
  • In contrast, Yaa failed to induce activation of Sp6 anti-DNA autoreactive B cells, consistent with a lack of increased IgM anti-DNA production in nontransgenic C57BL/6 Yaa mice [6].
  • In situ hybridization revealed that epiprofin mRNA is expressed by proliferating dental epithelium, differentiated odontoblast, and also hair follicle matrix epithelium [7].
  • Transfection of an epiprofin expression vector revealed that this molecule is localized in the nucleus and promotes cell proliferation [7].
  • Thus, epiprofin is a highly cell- and tissue-specific nuclear protein expressed primarily by proliferating epithelial cells of teeth, hair follicles, and limbs that may function in the development of these tissues by regulating cell growth [7].

Biological context of Sp6

  • We identified a cDNA clone for epiprofin, which is preferentially expressed in teeth, by differential hybridization using DNA microarrays from an embryonic day 19.5 mouse molar cDNA library [7].
  • This hypothesis is supported by the finding that TNP-specific B cells develop normally and do not undergo clonal deletion in xid mice carrying the Sp6 mu/kappa anti-TNP transgenes [8].
  • The rearranged mu and kappa genes from the 2,4,6-trinitrophenyl (TNP)-specific hybridoma Sp6 have been introduced into B cells from three different stages of differentiation as well as 5 non-B cell lines to determine the levels and modes of immunoglobulin (Ig) gene expression [1].
  • Similarly, TNP-dextran-induced apoptosis in Sp6 anti-TNF transgenics was inhibited by antisense c-myc [9].

Anatomical context of Sp6

  • On the other hand, B cells from the Sp6 mu kappa anti-trinitrophenyl TG mouse line proliferated normally after stimulation with soluble anti-mu [10].
  • There was no indication that in the naive host transgenic B cells would suppress proliferation of TNP- and Sp6-specific T cells, but they did so after antigenic stimulation [11].
  • These transformants displayed the mu Sp6 and kappa Sp6 proteins on the cell membrane and also secreted the transfected Ig product [1].
  • Plasma cell transformants produced the highest amounts of mu Sp6 and kappa Sp6 proteins [1].
  • T cell and one fibroblast transformant produced Ig as normal sized mu Sp6 and kappa Sp6 proteins [1].

Associations of Sp6 with chemical compounds


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Sp6

  • In addition, whole mount in situ hybridization showed transient expression of epiprofin mRNA in cells of the apical ectodermal ridge in developing limbs and the posterior neuropore [7].
  • Intravenous injection of spleen cells (SC) coated with an antitrinitrophenyl (anti-TNP) IgM monoclonal antibody, Sp6 (Sp6-SC), which carries a recurrent idiotype, resulted in activation of a Lyt-2-positive population which did adhere to Sp6-coated plates [12].


  1. Transformation of B and non-B cell lines with the 2,4,6,-trinitrophenyl (TNP)-specific immunoglobulin genes. McCubrey, J., McKearn, J.P., Köhler, G. Eur. J. Immunol. (1985) [Pubmed]
  2. Morphological study of virus-like particles in two transplantable tumours from BDX rats. Calafat, J., Janssen, H., Kuzumaki, N. J. Gen. Virol. (1981) [Pubmed]
  3. Experimental lupus nephritis in severe combined immunodeficient (SCID) mice: remodelling of the glomerular lesions by bystander IgM antibodies. Ito, M.R., Terasaki, S., Kondo, E., Shiwaku, H., Fukuoka, Y., Nose, M. Clin. Exp. Immunol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  4. Evidence for regulation of naturally activated autoreactive B cells. Zöller, M., Achtnich, M. Eur. J. Immunol. (1991) [Pubmed]
  5. Homologous recombination between transferred and chromosomal immunoglobulin kappa genes. Baker, M.D., Shulman, M.J. Mol. Cell. Biol. (1988) [Pubmed]
  6. Differential activation of anti-erythrocyte and anti-DNA autoreactive B lymphocytes by the Yaa mutation. Moll, T., Martinez-Soria, E., Santiago-Raber, M.L., Amano, H., Pihlgren-Bosch, M., Marinkovic, D., Izui, S. J. Immunol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  7. The Krüppel-like factor epiprofin is expressed by epithelium of developing teeth, hair follicles, and limb buds and promotes cell proliferation. Nakamura, T., Unda, F., de-Vega, S., Vilaxa, A., Fukumoto, S., Yamada, K.M., Yamada, Y. J. Biol. Chem. (2004) [Pubmed]
  8. Receptor-mediated elimination of phosphocholine-specific B cells in x-linked immune-deficient mice. Kenny, J.J., Stall, A.M., Sieckmann, D.G., Lamers, M.C., Finkelman, F.D., Finch, L., Longo, D.L. J. Immunol. (1991) [Pubmed]
  9. Role of c-myc and CD45 in spontaneous and anti-receptor-induced apoptosis in adult murine B cells. Scott, D.W., Lamers, M., Köhler, G., Sidman, C.L., Maddox, B., Carsetti, R. Int. Immunol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  10. B cells from M167 mu kappa transgenic mice fail to proliferate after stimulation with soluble anti-Ig antibodies. A model for antigen-induced B cell anergy. Sieckmann, D.G., Holmes, K., Hornbeck, P., Martin, E., Guelde, G., Bondada, S., Longo, D.L., Kenny, J.J. J. Immunol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  11. 2,4,6-trinitrophenyl (TNP) responsiveness of anti-TNP (Sp6) transgenic mice. Zöller, M. Eur. J. Immunol. (1991) [Pubmed]
  12. Activation of idiotype-specific suppressor T cells by injection of antibody carrying a recurrent idiotype. Zöller, M., Lopatta, D., Andrighetto, G. Cell. Immunol. (1986) [Pubmed]
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