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Gene Review

ABA2  -  Xanthoxin dehydrogenase

Arabidopsis thaliana

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Disease relevance of ABA2


High impact information on ABA2

  • Analysis of Arabidopsis glucose insensitive mutants, gin5 and gin6, reveals a central role of the plant hormone ABA in the regulation of plant vegetative development by sugar [2].
  • Consistent with this result, we show that three ABA-deficient mutants (aba1-1, aba2-1, and aba3-2) are also glucose insensitive [2].
  • To elucidate the regulatory components that constitute the glucose signaling network governing plant growth and development, we have isolated and characterized two Arabidopsis glucose insensitive mutants, gin5 and gin6, based on a glucose-induced developmental arrest during early seedling morphogenesis [2].
  • The molecular identification of ABA2 opens the possibility to study the regulation of ABA biosynthesis and its cellular location [1].
  • ABA2 cDNA encodes a chloroplast-imported protein of 72.5 kDa, sharing similarities with different mono-oxigenases and oxidases of bacterial origin and having an ADP-binding fold and an FAD-binding domain [1].

Chemical compound and disease context of ABA2


Biological context of ABA2

  • By contrast, ABA deficiency as conditioned by the mutations in the ABA1 and ABA2 genes, which encode enzymes involved in ABA biosynthesis, resulted in upregulation of basal and induced transcription from JA-ethylene responsive defense genes [4].
  • The aba2 mutant exhibits precocious seed germination and a severe wilty phenotype [1].
  • The isolation and characterization of gin1 reveal an unexpected convergence between the glucose and the ethylene signal transduction pathways [5].
  • The ABA-deficiency was caused by two monogenic, recessive mutations, aba2 and aba3, that were both located on chromosome 1 [6].

Anatomical context of ABA2


Associations of ABA2 with chemical compounds

  • Spatial expression patterns of the AtABA2 and AAO3 genes, responsible for last two steps of ABA biosynthesis, were distinct from that of the GA biosynthesis gene, AtGA3ox2, in both imbibed and developing seeds, suggesting that biosynthesis of ABA and GA in seeds occurs in different cell types [8].
  • Complementation analyses revealed that sre1-1, sre1-2, sañ3-1, and sañ3-2 were alleles of the abscisic acid (ABA) biosynthesis ABA2 gene [3].
  • The ABA2 gene product belongs to the family of short-chain dehydrogenases/reductases, which are known to be NAD- or NADP-dependent oxidoreductases [3].
  • The CvADH1 protein shared about 50% homology with short-chain alcohol dehydrogenase including ABA2 in Arabidopsis thaliana, stem secoisolariciresinol dehydrogenase in Forsythia intermedia, and 3beta-hydroxysterol dehydrogenase in Digitalis lanata [9].
  • SDR1 is related to SDR superfamily members involved in retinoid and steroid hormone biosynthesis in mammals and sex determination in maize [7].

Regulatory relationships of ABA2

  • Reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) results indicated that RGS1 overexpresssion significantly stimulated the expression of NCED and ABA2, that encode two key enzymes catalysing ABA biosynthesis [10].

Other interactions of ABA2

  • OST1 encodes a protein kinase involved in ABA-mediated stomatal closure while ABA2 encodes an enzyme involved in ABA biosynthesis [11].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of ABA2

  • Analyses of aba2/gin1 null mutants define dual functions of endogenous ABA in inhibiting the postgermination developmental switch modulated by distinct Glc and osmotic signals and in promoting organ and body size and fertility in the absence of severe stress [7].
  • We report here on the molecular cloning of GLUCOSE INSENSITIVE1 (GIN1) and ABSCISIC ACID DEFICIENT2 (ABA2) which encodes a unique Arabidopsis short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase (SDR1) that functions as a molecular link between nutrient signaling and plant hormone biosynthesis [7].
  • To initiate the dissection of the glucose signal transduction pathway in plants by using a genetic approach, we have identified an Arabidopsis mutant, gin1 (glucose-insensitive), in which glucose repression of cotyledon greening and expansion, shoot development, floral transition, and gene expression is impaired [5].
  • An ABA immunoassay supported this hypothesis: ABA-entrained plants showed a transient increase in endogenous ABA level from 220 to 250 pmol g-1 fresh mass at 1-2 h of the training period, whereas ABA-deficient (aba2) mutants did not [12].


  1. Molecular identification of zeaxanthin epoxidase of Nicotiana plumbaginifolia, a gene involved in abscisic acid biosynthesis and corresponding to the ABA locus of Arabidopsis thaliana. Marin, E., Nussaume, L., Quesada, A., Gonneau, M., Sotta, B., Hugueney, P., Frey, A., Marion-Poll, A. EMBO J. (1996) [Pubmed]
  2. Analysis of Arabidopsis glucose insensitive mutants, gin5 and gin6, reveals a central role of the plant hormone ABA in the regulation of plant vegetative development by sugar. Arenas-Huertero, F., Arroyo, A., Zhou, L., Sheen, J., León, P. Genes Dev. (2000) [Pubmed]
  3. The short-chain alcohol dehydrogenase ABA2 catalyzes the conversion of xanthoxin to abscisic aldehyde. González-Guzmán, M., Apostolova, N., Bellés, J.M., Barrero, J.M., Piqueras, P., Ponce, M.R., Micol, J.L., Serrano, R., Rodríguez, P.L. Plant Cell (2002) [Pubmed]
  4. Antagonistic interaction between abscisic acid and jasmonate-ethylene signaling pathways modulates defense gene expression and disease resistance in Arabidopsis. Anderson, J.P., Badruzsaufari, E., Schenk, P.M., Manners, J.M., Desmond, O.J., Ehlert, C., Maclean, D.J., Ebert, P.R., Kazan, K. Plant Cell (2004) [Pubmed]
  5. Glucose and ethylene signal transduction crosstalk revealed by an Arabidopsis glucose-insensitive mutant. Zhou, L., Jang, J.C., Jones, T.L., Sheen, J. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1998) [Pubmed]
  6. Isolation and characterization of abscisic acid-deficient Arabidopsis mutants at two new loci. Léon-Kloosterziel, K.M., Gil, M.A., Ruijs, G.J., Jacobsen, S.E., Olszewski, N.E., Schwartz, S.H., Zeevaart, J.A., Koornneef, M. Plant J. (1996) [Pubmed]
  7. A unique short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase in Arabidopsis glucose signaling and abscisic acid biosynthesis and functions. Cheng, W.H., Endo, A., Zhou, L., Penney, J., Chen, H.C., Arroyo, A., Leon, P., Nambara, E., Asami, T., Seo, M., Koshiba, T., Sheen, J. Plant Cell (2002) [Pubmed]
  8. Regulation of hormone metabolism in Arabidopsis seeds: phytochrome regulation of abscisic acid metabolism and abscisic acid regulation of gibberellin metabolism. Seo, M., Hanada, A., Kuwahara, A., Endo, A., Okamoto, M., Yamauchi, Y., North, H., Marion-Poll, A., Sun, T.P., Koshiba, T., Kamiya, Y., Yamaguchi, S., Nambara, E. Plant J. (2006) [Pubmed]
  9. CvADH1, a member of short-chain alcohol dehydrogenase family, is inducible by gibberellin and sucrose in developing watermelon seeds. Kim, J., Kang, H.G., Jun, S.H., Lee, J., Yim, J., An, G. Plant Cell Physiol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  10. Overexpression of the regulator of G-protein signalling protein enhances ABA-mediated inhibition of root elongation and drought tolerance in Arabidopsis. Chen, Y., Ji, F., Xie, H., Liang, J. J. Exp. Bot. (2006) [Pubmed]
  11. The identification of genes involved in the stomatal response to reduced atmospheric relative humidity. Xie, X., Wang, Y., Williamson, L., Holroyd, G.H., Tagliavia, C., Murchie, E., Theobald, J., Knight, M.R., Davies, W.J., Leyser, H.M., Hetherington, A.M. Curr. Biol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  12. Stress memory in plants: a negative regulation of stomatal response and transient induction of rd22 gene to light in abscisic acid-entrained Arabidopsis plants. Goh, C.H., Nam, H.G., Park, Y.S. Plant J. (2003) [Pubmed]
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