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Gene Review

NTG1  -  bifunctional N-glycosylase/AP lyase NTG1

Saccharomyces cerevisiae S288c

Synonyms: Bifunctional DNA N-glycoslyase/DNA-(apurinic or apyrimidinic site) lyase 1, DNA glycoslyase/AP lyase 1, Endonuclease III homolog 1, Endonuclease III-like glycosylase 1, FUN33, ...
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Disease relevance of NTG1


High impact information on NTG1

  • Replacement of the signal recognition particle (SRP) 7S gene (SCR1) on a replicating plasmid with scr1-1 (G to A at 129 and A to T at 131 in the consensus sequence -GNAR- in the loop of domain III) resulted in temperature sensitivity for growth of cells in which both chromosomal SRP 7S RNA genes were deleted [2].
  • Targeted gene disruption of NTG1 produces a mutant that is sensitive to H2O2 and menadione, indicating that NTG1 is required for repair of oxidative DNA damage in vivo [3].
  • S. cerevisiae NTG1 does not have the [4Fe-4S] cluster DNA binding domain characteristic of the other members of this family [3].
  • When expressed in E. coli, the NTG1 gene product cleaves plasmid DNA damaged by osmium tetroxide, thus, indicating specificity for thymine glycols in DNA similarly as is the case for EndoIII [3].
  • Purified Ntg1, a base excision repair enzyme, introduced a double-stranded break by itself into HS [ori5] [rho(-)] mtDNA at ori5 isolated from yeast cells [4].

Biological context of NTG1

  • Substrate specificities of the ntg1 and ntg2 proteins of Saccharomyces cerevisiae for oxidized DNA bases are not identical [5].
  • We conclude that functions of both NTG1 and NTG2 are important for removal of oxidative DNA damage in yeast [6].
  • However, ntg1 null strains did not exhibit a mitochondrial respiration-deficient (petite) phenotype, suggesting that mtDNA damage is negotiated by the cooperative actions of multiple damage resistance pathways [7].
  • Null mutations in ABF2 or PIF1, two genes implicated in mtDNA maintenance and recombination, exhibit a synthetic-petite phenotype in combination with ntg1 null mutations that is accompanied by enhanced mtDNA point mutagenesis in the corresponding double-mutant strains [7].
  • These biochemical studies strongly support an important biological role for Ntg1p and Ntg2p in the initial processing of abasic sites and maintenance of genomic stability [1].

Anatomical context of NTG1

  • Ntg2 appears to be a nuclear enzyme, whereas Ntg1 was sorted both to the nucleus and to the mitochondria [6].
  • It is proposed that the ribosomes of yeast cells expressing SCR1 undergo a conformational change during their interaction with the ER, which lowers their affinity for cyh-binding [8].
  • In contrast, a beta-galacosidase-tagged SCR1 was found to be integrated in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) [8].

Associations of NTG1 with chemical compounds


Other interactions of NTG1

  • The Ntg1 and Ntg2 proteins were overexpressed in E.coli and purified to apparent homogeneity [5].
  • The hyper-rec and mutator phenotypes of the ntg1 ntg2 apn1 triple mutant are further enhanced by the elimination of the nucleotide excision repair pathway [10].
  • The additional disruption of the RAD52 gene in the ntg1 ntg2 apn1 triple mutant confers a high degree of sensitivity to these agents [10].
  • In yeast mitochondria, three N-glycosylases have been identified so far, Ntg1p, Ogg1p and Ung1p [11].
  • Genetic analyses revealed that the combined inactivation of OGG1 and OGG2 [encoding an isoform of the Ogg1 protein, also known as endonuclease three-like glycosylase I (Ntg1)] leads to suppression of spontaneously arising mutations in the mitochondrial genome when compared with the ogg1 single mutant or the wild-type [12].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of NTG1


  1. Characterization of AP lyase activities of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Ntg1p and Ntg2p: implications for biological function. Meadows, K.L., Song, B., Doetsch, P.W. Nucleic Acids Res. (2003) [Pubmed]
  2. A mutation in the signal recognition particle 7S RNA of the yeast Yarrowia lipolytica preferentially affects synthesis of the alkaline extracellular protease: in vivo evidence for translational arrest. Yaver, D.S., Matoba, S., Ogrydziak, D.M. J. Cell Biol. (1992) [Pubmed]
  3. Base excision of oxidative purine and pyrimidine DNA damage in Saccharomyces cerevisiae by a DNA glycosylase with sequence similarity to endonuclease III from Escherichia coli. Eide, L., Bjørås, M., Pirovano, M., Alseth, I., Berdal, K.G., Seeberg, E. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1996) [Pubmed]
  4. DNA recombination-initiation plays a role in the extremely biased inheritance of yeast [rho-] mitochondrial DNA that contains the replication origin ori5. Ling, F., Hori, A., Shibata, T. Mol. Cell. Biol. (2007) [Pubmed]
  5. Substrate specificities of the ntg1 and ntg2 proteins of Saccharomyces cerevisiae for oxidized DNA bases are not identical. Sentürker, S., Auffret van der Kemp, P., You, H.J., Doetsch, P.W., Dizdaroglu, M., Boiteux, S. Nucleic Acids Res. (1998) [Pubmed]
  6. The Saccharomyces cerevisiae homologues of endonuclease III from Escherichia coli, Ntg1 and Ntg2, are both required for efficient repair of spontaneous and induced oxidative DNA damage in yeast. Alseth, I., Eide, L., Pirovano, M., Rognes, T., Seeberg, E., Bjørås, M. Mol. Cell. Biol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  7. Mitochondrial dysfunction due to oxidative mitochondrial DNA damage is reduced through cooperative actions of diverse proteins. O'Rourke, T.W., Doudican, N.A., Mackereth, M.D., Doetsch, P.W., Shadel, G.S. Mol. Cell. Biol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  8. The SCR1 gene from Schwanniomyces occidentalis encodes a highly hydrophobic polypeptide, which confers ribosomal resistance to cycloheximide. Hoenicka, J., Fernández Lobato, M., Marín, D., Jiménez, A. Yeast (2002) [Pubmed]
  9. DNA substrates containing defined oxidative base lesions and their application to study substrate specificities of base excision repair enzymes. Ide, H. Prog. Nucleic Acid Res. Mol. Biol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  10. Overlapping specificities of base excision repair, nucleotide excision repair, recombination, and translesion synthesis pathways for DNA base damage in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Swanson, R.L., Morey, N.J., Doetsch, P.W., Jinks-Robertson, S. Mol. Cell. Biol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  11. Ntg1p, the base excision repair protein, generates mutagenic intermediates in yeast mitochondrial DNA. Phadnis, N., Mehta, R., Meednu, N., Sia, E.A. DNA Repair (Amst.) (2006) [Pubmed]
  12. Inactivation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae OGG1 DNA repair gene leads to an increased frequency of mitochondrial mutants. Singh, K.K., Sigala, B., Sikder, H.A., Schwimmer, C. Nucleic Acids Res. (2001) [Pubmed]
  13. Hemagglutination inhibition of Cromer blood group antibodies with soluble recombinant decay-accelerating factor. Daniels, G.L., Green, C.A., Powell, R.M., Ward, T. Transfusion (1998) [Pubmed]
  14. Reciprocal nuclear shuttling of two antagonizing zn finger proteins modulates tup family corepressor function to repress chromatin remodeling. Hirota, K., Hoffman, C.S., Ohta, K. Eukaryotic Cell (2006) [Pubmed]
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