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Gene Review

TEF1  -  translation elongation factor EF-1 alpha

Saccharomyces cerevisiae S288c

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Disease relevance of TEF1

  • For this purpose a cassette was constructed which contains the E. coli hph gene, conferring hygromycin B resistance, fused to the 5' expression signals of the A. adeninivorans TEF1 gene, encoding the translation elongation factor EF-1alpha, and the transcription termination region of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae PHO5 gene [1].

High impact information on TEF1

  • The promoters of the Ashbya gossypii TEF gene and the S. cerevisiae TEF1 and TEF2 genes, however, are resistant to transcriptional silencing by the HM silencers in yeast [2].
  • Whereas histone H3K4 trimethylation normally marks 5' ends of highly transcribed genes, under 'transcriptional stress' induced by 6-azauracil (6-AU) and inactivation of pol II, TFIIE or CTD kinases Kin28 and Ctk1, this mark shifted to the 3' end of the TEF1 gene [3].
  • Element II contained putative TEF-1 binding sites flanking a CCAAT element and was sufficient for developmental regulation of transcription [4].
  • Complex 1, formed on TEF1, TEF2 and RP51A 5'-flanking region, was correlated with the protection of a 25-bp sequence [5].
  • TEF1 maps on chromosome II close to LYS2 [6].

Biological context of TEF1

  • The DNA sequence analysis of TEF1 allowed the prediction of the protein sequence [6].
  • A search for TEF1 homologous sequences in several yeast species shows, in most cases, duplicated genes and a much higher sequence conservation than among genes encoding amino acid biosynthetic enzymes [6].
  • The presence of an intact chromosomal TEF1 gene is not essential for growth of haploid yeast cells [7].
  • A conserved sequence in the TEF1/2 transcript has been identified that also functions as a STE, suggesting that this sequence element maybe a general stability determinant found in other yeast mRNAs [8].
  • The cloned gene, called TEF1, encodes a protein of 458 amino acids (Mr = 50,071) in a single, uninterrupted reading frame [7].

Associations of TEF1 with chemical compounds

  • Vectors that confer high levels of phleomycin (Ph) resistance to Saccharomyces cerevisiae have been constructed with the TEF1 and ENO1 promoters, the Tn5 ble gene and the CYC1 terminator [9].
  • To illustrate the utility of the method, the GPD1 promoter of S. cerevisiae was replaced by five TEF1 promoter mutants of different strengths, which allowed analysis of the impact of glycerol 3-phosphate dehydrogenase activity on the glycerol yield [10].
  • Two nucleotide sequences homologous to the upstream activation sequence, characterized for the ribosomal protein genes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, as well as the pyrimidine-rich sequences were present in the TEF1 gene promoter region, suggesting that the A, oryzae TEF1 gene has a strong promoter activity [11].
  • The vector harbours a conserved A. adeninivorans-derived 25S rDNA sequence for targeting, the A. adeninivorans-derived TEF1 promoter for expression control of the reporter sequence, and the Escherichia coli-derived hph gene conferring resistance against hygromycin B for selection of recombinants [12].

Regulatory relationships of TEF1

  • TEF2 alone is sufficient to promote growth of the cells as shown with a strain deleted for TEF1 [6].
  • Overexpression of the RIB4 coding sequence in yeast cells under the control of the strong TEF1 promoter allowed ready purification of 6,7-dimethyl-8-ribityllumazine synthase to apparent homogeneity by a simple procedure [13].

Other interactions of TEF1

  • In band retardation assays, the promoters for the elongation factor 1 alpha-encoding genes (TEF1 and TEF2) competed for binding of the protein to the copy of UASRPG in the ADH1 promoter [14].
  • The level of TEF-1 and -2 mRNA varied little among the cell morphological types studied, whereas TEF-3 mRNA was present in twofold greater quantity in sporangiospores than in either germlings or yeast cells which had been induced to undergo morphogenesis to hyphae [15].
  • These results demonstrate that transformation into C. rugosa is feasible under the operation of GAL1, TEF1, and LIP3 promoters [16].
  • GAL1 promoter, transcription elongation factor 1 (TEF1) promoter from Saccharomyces cerevisiae and LIP3 promoter from C. rugosa were then used to drive zeo-n and to examine the function of promoter in C. rugosa [16].
  • The Ste12p-dependent UAS from Ty1, called a sterile response element (SRE), is of the second type and is comprised of a PRE and an adjacent TEA (TEF-1, Tec1, and AbaA motif) DNA consensus sequence (TCS) [17].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of TEF1

  • Sequence analysis of the two clones showed that regions of DNA flanking the coding regions of the two genes were not homologous, verifying the presence of two genes, called TEF1 and TEF2, for EF-1 alpha in C. albicans [18].
  • Fractionation of yeast extracts on heparin-agarose revealed the presence of a DNA footprinting activity that interacted specifically with the 5'-upstream region of TEF1 and TEF2 genes coding for the protein synthesis elongation factor EF-1 alpha, and of the ribosomal protein gene RP51A [5].
  • Degenerate PCR primers were synthesized based upon known translation factor 1alpha (TEF1) sequences [19].
  • Southern blot analysis revealed that the Hc tef1 gene was present as a single copy [20].


  1. Integrative transformation of the dimorphic yeast arxula adeninivorans LS3 based on hygromycin B resistance. Rösel, H., Kunze, G. Curr. Genet. (1998) [Pubmed]
  2. UASrpg can function as a heterochromatin boundary element in yeast. Bi, X., Broach, J.R. Genes Dev. (1999) [Pubmed]
  3. Altered nucleosome occupancy and histone H3K4 methylation in response to 'transcriptional stress'. Zhang, L., Schroeder, S., Fong, N., Bentley, D.L. EMBO J. (2005) [Pubmed]
  4. The Aspergillus nidulans yA gene is regulated by abaA. Aramayo, R., Timberlake, W.E. EMBO J. (1993) [Pubmed]
  5. A general upstream binding factor for genes of the yeast translational apparatus. Huet, J., Cottrelle, P., Cool, M., Vignais, M.L., Thiele, D., Marck, C., Buhler, J.M., Sentenac, A., Fromageot, P. EMBO J. (1985) [Pubmed]
  6. Identification of two genes coding for the translation elongation factor EF-1 alpha of S. cerevisiae. Schirmaier, F., Philippsen, P. EMBO J. (1984) [Pubmed]
  7. Cloning, nucleotide sequence, and expression of one of two genes coding for yeast elongation factor 1 alpha. Cottrelle, P., Thiele, D., Price, V.L., Memet, S., Micouin, J.Y., Marck, C., Buhler, J.M., Sentenac, A., Fromageot, P. J. Biol. Chem. (1985) [Pubmed]
  8. Characterization of a general stabilizer element that blocks deadenylation-dependent mRNA decay. Ruiz-Echevarria, M.J., Munshi, R., Tomback, J., Kinzy, T.G., Peltz, S.W. J. Biol. Chem. (2001) [Pubmed]
  9. Cloning of Saccharomyces cerevisiae promoters using a probe vector based on phleomycin resistance. Gatignol, A., Dassain, M., Tiraby, G. Gene (1990) [Pubmed]
  10. Engineering of promoter replacement cassettes for fine-tuning of gene expression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Nevoigt, E., Kohnke, J., Fischer, C.R., Alper, H., Stahl, U., Stephanopoulos, G. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  11. Utilization of the TEF1-alpha gene (TEF1) promoter for expression of polygalacturonase genes, pgaA and pgaB, in Aspergillus oryzae. Kitamoto, N., Matsui, J., Kawai, Y., Kato, A., Yoshino, S., Ohmiya, K., Tsukagoshi, N. Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  12. A wide-range integrative yeast expression vector system based on Arxula adeninivorans-derived elements. Terentiev, Y., Pico, A.H., Böer, E., Wartmann, T., Klabunde, J., Breuer, U., Babel, W., Suckow, M., Gellissen, G., Kunze, G. J. Ind. Microbiol. Biotechnol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  13. The Saccharomyces cerevisiae RIB4 gene codes for 6,7-dimethyl-8-ribityllumazine synthase involved in riboflavin biosynthesis. Molecular characterization of the gene and purification of the encoded protein. García-Ramírez, J.J., Santos, M.A., Revuelta, J.L. J. Biol. Chem. (1995) [Pubmed]
  14. Efficient expression of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae glycolytic gene ADH1 is dependent upon a cis-acting regulatory element (UASRPG) found initially in genes encoding ribosomal proteins. Tornow, J., Santangelo, G.M. Gene (1990) [Pubmed]
  15. Expression of three genes for elongation factor 1 alpha during morphogenesis of Mucor racemosus. Linz, J.E., Sypherd, P.S. Mol. Cell. Biol. (1987) [Pubmed]
  16. A transformation system for the nonuniversal CUG(Ser) codon usage species Candida rugosa. Tang, S.J., Sun, K.H., Sun, G.H., Chang, T.Y., Wu, W.L., Lee, G.C. J. Microbiol. Methods (2003) [Pubmed]
  17. Cooperative binding interactions required for function of the Ty1 sterile responsive element. Baur, M., Esch, R.K., Errede, B. Mol. Cell. Biol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  18. Sequence analysis and expression of the two genes for elongation factor 1 alpha from the dimorphic yeast Candida albicans. Sundstrom, P., Smith, D., Sypherd, P.S. J. Bacteriol. (1990) [Pubmed]
  19. Cloning and molecular characterization of CnTEF1 which encodes translation elongation factor 1alpha in Cryptococcus neoformans. Thornewell, S.J., Peery, R.B., Skatrud, P.L. Fungal Genet. Biol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  20. Cloning and analysis of cDNA encoding an elongation factor 1 alpha from the dimorphic fungus Histoplasma capsulatum. Shearer, G. Gene (1995) [Pubmed]
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