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Gene Review

NP  -  nucleoprotein

Zaire ebolavirus

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Disease relevance of NP


High impact information on NP

  • We were unable to identify the types of glycosylation and sialylation, although we did confirm that Ebola virus NP was glycosylated [2].
  • These data advance our understanding of the functional region(s) of Ebola virus NP, which in turn should improve our knowledge of the Ebola virus life cycle and its extreme pathogenicity [2].
  • Here, we examined the glycosylation of Ebola virus NP and further investigated its properties by generating deletion mutants to define the region(s) involved in NP-NP interaction (self-assembly), in the formation of nucleocapsid-like structures, and in the replication of the viral genome [2].
  • Vaccination induced both antibodies to the NP and a major histocompatibility complex class I-restricted CTL response to an 11-amino-acid sequence in the amino-terminal portion of the Ebola virus NP [6].
  • Protection from Ebola virus mediated by cytotoxic T lymphocytes specific for the viral nucleoprotein [6].

Biological context of NP


Anatomical context of NP

  • HeLa cells abortively infected with the baculovirus expressed EBO NP, and this was used as an immunofluorescent (IF) antigen to detect EBO immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibody [9].
  • Identification of murine T-cell epitopes in Ebola virus nucleoprotein [10].
  • Analysis of linear B-cell epitopes of the nucleoprotein of ebola virus that distinguish ebola virus subtypes [11].

Associations of NP with chemical compounds

  • Previous vaccine efforts with Ebola virus Zaire (EBOV-Z) emphasized the potential protective efficacies of immune responses to the surface glycoprotein and the nucleoprotein [12].

Other interactions of NP

  • Peptide mapping of glycoproteins, nucleoproteins (NP) and viral structural protein (VP40) demonstrated extensive sequence conservation in the proteins of viruses isolated over a 13-year period, but homology was not evident in VP24 [13].
  • Four antibodies reacting strongly with sGP and weakly with GP and two antibodies reacting with NP were not neutralizing [14].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of NP

  • To determine whether this earlier immune response could nonetheless protect against disease, cynomolgus macaques were challenged with Ebola virus after vaccination with ADV-GP and nucleoprotein (NP) vectors [15].
  • In contrast, adoptive transfer of CTLs specific for the Ebola virus NP protected unvaccinated mice from lethal Ebola virus challenge [6].
  • We developed an immunoglobulin G (IgG) ELISA using His-EBO-NP and the C-terminal halves of the NPs of EBO and MBG as antigens [16].
  • Western-blot analysis showed that IgG responses were directed to nucleoprotein and viral protein of 40 kDa [17].
  • Immunofluorescence method for detection of Ebola virus immunoglobulin g, using HeLa cells which express recombinant nucleoprotein [9].


  1. The assembly of Ebola virus nucleocapsid requires virion-associated proteins 35 and 24 and posttranslational modification of nucleoprotein. Huang, Y., Xu, L., Sun, Y., Nabel, G.J. Mol. Cell (2002) [Pubmed]
  2. Functional mapping of the nucleoprotein of Ebola virus. Watanabe, S., Noda, T., Kawaoka, Y. J. Virol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  3. Recombinant Ebola virus nucleoprotein and glycoprotein (Gabon 94 strain) provide new tools for the detection of human infections. Prehaud, C., Hellebrand, E., Coudrier, D., Volchkov, V.E., Volchkova, V.A., Feldmann, H., Le Guenno, B., Bouloy, M. J. Gen. Virol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  4. Serological reactivity of baculovirus-expressed Ebola virus VP35 and nucleoproteins. Groen, J., van den Hoogen, B.G., Burghoorn-Maas, C.P., Fooks, A.R., Burton, J., Clegg, C.J., Zeller, H., Osterhaus, A.D. Microbes Infect. (2003) [Pubmed]
  5. Sequence analysis of the Marburg virus nucleoprotein gene: comparison to Ebola virus and other non-segmented negative-strand RNA viruses. Sanchez, A., Kiley, M.P., Klenk, H.D., Feldmann, H. J. Gen. Virol. (1992) [Pubmed]
  6. Protection from Ebola virus mediated by cytotoxic T lymphocytes specific for the viral nucleoprotein. Wilson, J.A., Hart, M.K. J. Virol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  7. The nucleoprotein gene of Ebola virus: cloning, sequencing, and in vitro expression. Sanchez, A., Kiley, M.P., Holloway, B.P., McCormick, J.B., Auperin, D.D. Virology (1989) [Pubmed]
  8. Molecular characterization of guinea pig-adapted variants of Ebola virus. Volchkov, V.E., Chepurnov, A.A., Volchkova, V.A., Ternovoj, V.A., Klenk, H.D. Virology (2000) [Pubmed]
  9. Immunofluorescence method for detection of Ebola virus immunoglobulin g, using HeLa cells which express recombinant nucleoprotein. Saijo, M., Niikura, M., Morikawa, S., Kurane, I. J. Clin. Microbiol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  10. Identification of murine T-cell epitopes in Ebola virus nucleoprotein. Simmons, G., Lee, A., Rennekamp, A.J., Fan, X., Bates, P., Shen, H. Virology (2004) [Pubmed]
  11. Analysis of linear B-cell epitopes of the nucleoprotein of ebola virus that distinguish ebola virus subtypes. Niikura, M., Ikegami, T., Saijo, M., Kurata, T., Kurane, I., Morikawa, S. Clin. Diagn. Lab. Immunol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  12. Vaccine potential of Ebola virus VP24, VP30, VP35, and VP40 proteins. Wilson, J.A., Bray, M., Bakken, R., Hart, M.K. Virology (2001) [Pubmed]
  13. Physicochemical properties of Marburg virus: evidence for three distinct virus strains and their relationship to Ebola virus. Kiley, M.P., Cox, N.J., Elliott, L.H., Sanchez, A., DeFries, R., Buchmeier, M.J., Richman, D.D., McCormick, J.B. J. Gen. Virol. (1988) [Pubmed]
  14. Ebola virus can be effectively neutralized by antibody produced in natural human infection. Maruyama, T., Rodriguez, L.L., Jahrling, P.B., Sanchez, A., Khan, A.S., Nichol, S.T., Peters, C.J., Parren, P.W., Burton, D.R. J. Virol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  15. Accelerated vaccination for Ebola virus haemorrhagic fever in non-human primates. Sullivan, N.J., Geisbert, T.W., Geisbert, J.B., Xu, L., Yang, Z.Y., Roederer, M., Koup, R.A., Jahrling, P.B., Nabel, G.J. Nature (2003) [Pubmed]
  16. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays for detection of antibodies to Ebola and Marburg viruses using recombinant nucleoproteins. Saijo, M., Niikura, M., Morikawa, S., Ksiazek, T.G., Meyer, R.F., Peters, C.J., Kurane, I. J. Clin. Microbiol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  17. Human asymptomatic Ebola infection and strong inflammatory response. Leroy, E.M., Baize, S., Volchkov, V.E., Fisher-Hoch, S.P., Georges-Courbot, M.C., Lansoud-Soukate, J., Capron, M., Debré, P., McCormick, J.B., Georges, A.J. Lancet (2000) [Pubmed]
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