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MeSH Review

Cadmium Poisoning

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Disease relevance of Cadmium Poisoning

  • Results of the in vivo studies are consistent with a significant role of cadmium in the etiology of Itai-Itai disease among postmenopausal women in Japan and may in part explain the increased risk of postmenopausal osteoporosis among women who smoke [1].
  • Osteomalacia of cadmium (Cd) poisoning (Itai-Itai disease) is induced by renal tubular dysfunction; however, the precise pathological changes and mechanisms have not been adequately elucidated [2].
  • Studies on the women with acquired Fanconi syndrome observed in the Ichi river basin polluted by cadmium. Is this Itai-itai disease [3]?
  • Retinol-binding protein in tubular proteinuria of patients with Itai-Itai disease [4].
  • Relating our results to humans, women who contracted itai-itai disease (analogous to mice on the deficient, 5 ppm cadmium diet), in addition to their characteristic bone disease, could have experienced decreases in fertility and in growth of their offspring related to their dietary deficiencies [5].

High impact information on Cadmium Poisoning

  • Regression analyses of data from cases of itai-itai disease suggested that an Aluminon-positive metal inhibited mineralization and that renal tubules were injured [6].
  • Neither ferritin nor transferrin were visualized at mineralization fronts in itai-itai disease by immunohistochemical staining [6].
  • Furthermore, proper cancellous tissue of the ribs from 24 autopsy cases of Itai-itai disease with Looser zones or with the healing bands, 27 autopsy cases of Itai-itai disease without such lesions, and 29 control cases were studied by the same method to pursue the histogenesis of Looser zones [7].
  • No relationship exists between itai-itai disease and TA repeat polymorphisms of the estrogen receptor alpha gene [8].
  • However, estrogen receptors have never been studied in itai-itai disease [9].

Chemical compound and disease context of Cadmium Poisoning

  • Twelve Looser zones and 17 healing bands of the ribs obtained from autopsy cases of Itai-itai disease were analyzed by bone histomorphometry [7].
  • To investigate whether chronic exposure of cadmium (Cd) chloride induces osteomalacic lesions similar to Itai-itai disease (IID), ovariectomized rats were injected intravenously with the cadmium at doses of 0.05 and 0.5 mg/kg/day, 5 days per week, for 50 weeks [10].
  • Retinol-binding protein(RBP) was purified from fresh urine of patients suffering from Itai-Itai disease [11].
  • Renal cortex in 15 cases with Itai-itai disease was morphometrically examined, i.e. the cross-size of tubuli in the renal cortex was measured using a color image analyzer (Olympus CIA-102) and the ratio of preserved urinary tubuli occupying renal cortex was calculated by means of the point-counting method [12].
  • Iron (Fe) concentrations in liver and kidney of cadmium (Cd)-exposed people (11 Itai-Itai patients, 13 persons requiring observation and 4 Cd-exposed persons) were compared with those of nonexposed people [13].

Biological context of Cadmium Poisoning


Anatomical context of Cadmium Poisoning


Gene context of Cadmium Poisoning


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Cadmium Poisoning


  1. Cadmium accelerates bone loss in ovariectomized mice and fetal rat limb bones in culture. Bhattacharyya, M.H., Whelton, B.D., Stern, P.H., Peterson, D.P. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1988) [Pubmed]
  2. Cadmium induces osteomalacia mediated by proximal tubular atrophy and disturbances of phosphate reabsorption. A study of 11 autopsies. Takebayashi, S., Jimi, S., Segawa, M., Kiyoshi, Y. Pathol. Res. Pract. (2000) [Pubmed]
  3. Studies on the women with acquired Fanconi syndrome observed in the Ichi river basin polluted by cadmium. Is this Itai-itai disease? Nogawa, K., Ishizaki, A., Fukushima, M., Shibata, I., Hagino, N. Environmental research. (1975) [Pubmed]
  4. Retinol-binding protein in tubular proteinuria of patients with Itai-Itai disease. Kanai, M., Iwanaga, T., Hagino, N., Muto, Y. World review of nutrition and dietetics. (1978) [Pubmed]
  5. Female reproduction and pup survival and growth for mice fed a cadmium-containing purified diet through six consecutive rounds of gestation and lactation. Whelton, B.D., Bhattacharyya, M.H., Carnes, B.A., Moretti, E.S., Peterson, D.P. Journal of toxicology and environmental health. (1988) [Pubmed]
  6. Iron as a possible aggravating factor for osteopathy in itai-itai disease, a disease associated with chronic cadmium intoxication. Noda, M., Yasuda, M., Kitagawa, M. J. Bone Miner. Res. (1991) [Pubmed]
  7. Histomorphometric study of ribs with looser zones in Itai-itai disease. Yamashita, H., Kitagawa, M. Calcif. Tissue Int. (1996) [Pubmed]
  8. No relationship exists between itai-itai disease and TA repeat polymorphisms of the estrogen receptor alpha gene. Sadewa, H.A., Miyabe, Y., Nishio, H., Hayashi, C., Sutomo, R., Lee, M.J., Ayaki, H., Koizumi, N., Sumino, K. Arch. Toxicol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  9. Itai-itai disease is not associated with polymorphisms of the estrogen receptor alpha gene. Nishio, H., Hayashi, C., Lee, M.J., Ayaki, H., Yamamoto, R., Ninomiya, R., Koizumi, N., Sumino, K. Arch. Toxicol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  10. Iron deposition at mineralization fronts and osteoid formation following chronic cadmium exposure in ovariectomized rats. Hiratsuka, H., Katsuta, O., Toyota, N., Tsuchitani, M., Akiba, T., Marumo, F., Umemura, T. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  11. Binding of retinol-binding protein obtained from human urine with vitamin A derivatives and terpenoids. Hase, J., Kobashi, K., Nakai, N., Onosaka, S. J. Biochem. (1976) [Pubmed]
  12. Morphometric studies of renal lesions in Itai-itai disease: chronic cadmium nephropathy. Yasuda, M., Miwa, A., Kitagawa, M. Nephron (1995) [Pubmed]
  13. Iron concentrations in liver and kidney of cadmium-exposed human subjects. Nogawa, K., Honda, R., Yamada, Y., Kido, T., Tsuritani, I., Ishizaki, M. Toxicol. Lett. (1984) [Pubmed]
  14. Skeletal changes in multiparous mice fed a nutrient-sufficient diet containing cadmium. Bhattacharyya, M.H., Whelton, B.D., Peterson, D.P., Carnes, B.A., Moretti, E.S., Toomey, J.M., Williams, L.L. Toxicology (1988) [Pubmed]
  15. Postlactational changes in cadmium retention in mice orally exposed to cadmium during pregnancy and lactation. Bhattacharyya, M.H., Sellers, D.A., Peterson, D.P. Environmental research. (1986) [Pubmed]
  16. A comparison between health effects of cadmium and cadmium concentration in urine among inhabitants of the Itai-itai disease endemic district. Nogawa, K., Ishizaki, A., Kobayashi, E. Environmental research. (1979) [Pubmed]
  17. Osteopenia in inhabitants with renal dysfunction induced by exposure to environmental cadmium. Kido, T., Nogawa, K., Yamada, Y., Honda, R., Tsuritani, I., Ishizaki, M., Yamaya, H. International archives of occupational and environmental health. (1989) [Pubmed]
  18. Biological monitoring of cadmium exposure in itai-itai disease epidemiology. Nogawa, K., Kido, T. International archives of occupational and environmental health. (1993) [Pubmed]
  19. Mitochondrial DNA deletion of proximal tubules is the result of itai-itai disease. Takebayashi, S., Jimi, S., Segawa, M., Takaki, A. Clin. Exp. Nephrol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  20. Urinary N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminidase and beta 2-microglobulin in 'itai-itai' disease. Nogawa, K., Yamada, Y., Honda, R., Tsuritani, I., Ishizaki, M., Sakamoto, M. Toxicol. Lett. (1983) [Pubmed]
  21. Demonstration of vitamin D-binding protein (Gc-globulin) in the urine of Itai-itai disease patients. Teranishi, H., Kasuya, M., Aoshima, K., Kato, T., Migita, S. Toxicol. Lett. (1983) [Pubmed]
  22. Long-term cadmium exposure induces anemia in rats through hypoinduction of erythropoietin in the kidneys. Horiguchi, H., Sato, M., Konno, N., Fukushima, M. Arch. Toxicol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  23. Hypoproduction of erythropoietin contributes to anemia in chronic cadmium intoxication: clinical study on Itai-itai disease in Japan. Horiguchi, H., Teranishi, H., Niiya, K., Aoshima, K., Katoh, T., Sakuragawa, N., Kasuya, M. Arch. Toxicol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  24. Severity of tubular brush border damage in cadmium-polluted area (Jinzu river basin): clinical role of urinary trehalase. Nakano, M., Aoshima, K., Katoh, T., Teranishi, H., Kasuya, M., Katoh, T. Environmental research. (1987) [Pubmed]
  25. Epidemiological studies on cadmium in the environment in Japan: etiology of itai-itai disease. Tsuchiya, K. Fed. Proc. (1976) [Pubmed]
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