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Gene Review

B2M  -  beta-2-microglobulin

Homo sapiens

Synonyms: Beta-2-microglobulin, CDABP0092, HDCMA22P
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Disease relevance of B2M


Psychiatry related information on B2M


High impact information on B2M


Chemical compound and disease context of B2M


Biological context of B2M


Anatomical context of B2M


Associations of B2M with chemical compounds


Physical interactions of B2M

  • We now show that the extracellular region of HLA-E forms a stable complex with beta2 microglobulin and can be refolded around synthetic peptide [33].
  • Co-immunoprecipitation studies of cell lysates from human embryonic kidney cells transfected with wild-type or mutant HLA-H cDNA demonstrate that wild-type HLA-H binds beta2-microglobulin and that the C282Y mutation, but not the H63D mutation, completely abrogates this interaction [34].
  • The identification of the beta 2-microglobulin binding antigen encoded by the human CD1D gene [35].
  • Dissociation of human beta-2-microglobulin (beta(2)m) from the heavy chain of the class I HLA complex is a critical first step in the formation of amyloid fibrils from this protein [36].
  • The latter residue is the only one to differ between human and mouse beta 2-mu in the stretch of amino acids interacting with the alpha 1 and alpha 2 domains of HLA class I heavy chains.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)[37]

Enzymatic interactions of B2M


Co-localisations of B2M


Regulatory relationships of B2M


Other interactions of B2M

  • HLA-A and HLA-B antigens are integral membrane glycoproteins which consist of a glycosylated heavy chain embedded in the membrane in noncovalent association with beta 2-microglobulin, a water-soluble polypeptide [28].
  • Here, we show that the related chaperone, calreticulin, binds human class I-beta 2m dimers prior to peptide loading [25].
  • These data add further support to the hypothesis proposing a role for alpha 2-M and other antiproteases in the formation and/or persistence of beta 2-m amyloidosis [46].
  • However, sequential immunoprecipitation with monoclonal antibody W6/32 followed by monoclonal antibody G233 continued to detect a residual band of 39 kDa, suggesting that trophoblast surface HLA-G may also occur as free heavy chains not associated with beta 2 m [43].
  • Therefore, using RT-PCR, we have investigated the HLA class I transcriptional expression in a locus-specific manner, along with HLA-associated accessory molecules beta2-microglobulin and transporter-associated antigen processing molecule (TAP1) [47].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of B2M


  1. The beta 2-microglobulin dissociation rate is an accurate measure of the stability of MHC class I heterotrimers and depends on which peptide is bound. Parker, K.C., DiBrino, M., Hull, L., Coligan, J.E. J. Immunol. (1992) [Pubmed]
  2. Beta2-microglobulin promotes the growth of human renal cell carcinoma through the activation of the protein kinase A, cyclic AMP-responsive element-binding protein, and vascular endothelial growth factor axis. Nomura, T., Huang, W.C., Zhau, H.E., Wu, D., Xie, Z., Mimata, H., Zayzafoon, M., Young, A.N., Marshall, F.F., Weitzmann, M.N., Chung, L.W. Clin. Cancer Res. (2006) [Pubmed]
  3. Loss of HLA class-I alleles, heavy chains and beta 2-microglobulin in colorectal cancer. Kaklamanis, L., Gatter, K.C., Hill, A.B., Mortensen, N., Harris, A.L., Krausa, P., McMichael, A., Bodmer, J.G., Bodmer, W.F. Int. J. Cancer (1992) [Pubmed]
  4. Serum alpha 2-macroglobulin in haemodialysis patients: baseline and kinetic studies. Argilés, A., Kerr, P.G., Mourad, G., Mion, C.M., Atkins, R.C. Nephrol. Dial. Transplant. (1993) [Pubmed]
  5. Long-latency event-related potentials in asymptomatic human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection. Connolly, S., Manji, H., McAllister, R.H., Fell, M., Loveday, C., Kirkis, C., Herns, M., Sweeney, B., Sartawi, O., Durrance, P. Ann. Neurol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  6. The diagnostic utility of elevation in cerebrospinal fluid beta 2-microglobulin in HIV-1 dementia. Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study. McArthur, J.C., Nance-Sproson, T.E., Griffin, D.E., Hoover, D., Selnes, O.A., Miller, E.N., Margolick, J.B., Cohen, B.A., Farzadegan, H., Saah, A. Neurology (1992) [Pubmed]
  7. Cerebrospinal fluid beta 2-microglobulin in patients with AIDS dementia complex: an expanded series including response to zidovudine treatment. Brew, B.J., Bhalla, R.B., Paul, M., Sidtis, J.J., Keilp, J.J., Sadler, A.E., Gallardo, H., McArthur, J.C., Schwartz, M.K., Price, R.W. AIDS (1992) [Pubmed]
  8. Pharmacokinetics and nephrotoxicity of continuous intravenous infusion of gentamicin in low birth weight infants. Giacoia, G.P., Schentag, J.J. J. Pediatr. (1986) [Pubmed]
  9. Effect of human immunodeficiency virus infection on serum beta2-microglobulin levels in pregnant women. Bardeguez, A.D., Connor, E., Stephens, R., Denny, T.N., Holland, B., Oleske, J. Obstetrics and gynecology. (1999) [Pubmed]
  10. Mechanisms of MHC class I--restricted antigen processing. Pamer, E., Cresswell, P. Annu. Rev. Immunol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  11. Antigen processing and presentation by the class I major histocompatibility complex. York, I.A., Rock, K.L. Annu. Rev. Immunol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  12. Treatment of human immunodeficiency virus infection with saquinavir, zidovudine, and zalcitabine. AIDS Clinical Trials Group. Collier, A.C., Coombs, R.W., Schoenfeld, D.A., Bassett, R.L., Timpone, J., Baruch, A., Jones, M., Facey, K., Whitacre, C., McAuliffe, V.J., Friedman, H.M., Merigan, T.C., Reichman, R.C., Hooper, C., Corey, L. N. Engl. J. Med. (1996) [Pubmed]
  13. Changes in plasma HIV-1 RNA and CD4+ lymphocyte counts and the risk of progression to AIDS. Veterans Affairs Cooperative Study Group on AIDS. O'Brien, W.A., Hartigan, P.M., Martin, D., Esinhart, J., Hill, A., Benoit, S., Rubin, M., Simberkoff, M.S., Hamilton, J.D. N. Engl. J. Med. (1996) [Pubmed]
  14. Impairment of renal function with increasing blood lead concentrations in the general population. The Cadmibel Study Group. Staessen, J.A., Lauwerys, R.R., Buchet, J.P., Bulpitt, C.J., Rondia, D., Vanrenterghem, Y., Amery, A. N. Engl. J. Med. (1992) [Pubmed]
  15. Evaluation of cystatin C and beta-2 microglobulin as markers of renal function in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Mojiminiyi, O.A., Abdella, N. J. Diabetes Complicat. (2003) [Pubmed]
  16. Serum neopterin, beta2-microglobulin, soluble interleukin-2 receptors, and immunoglobulin levels in healthy adolescents. Satoh, T., Brown, L.M., Blattner, W.A., Maloney, E.M., Kurman, C.C., Nelson, D.L., Fuchs, D., Wachter, H., Tollerud, D.J. Clin. Immunol. Immunopathol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  17. Urinary N-acetyl-beta-glucosaminidase and beta-2-microglobulin in the diagnosis of urinary tract infection in febrile infants. Jantausch, B.A., Rifai, N., Getson, P., Akram, S., Majd, M., Wiedermann, B.L. Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J. (1994) [Pubmed]
  18. Report on a 3-year follow-up zidovudine (AZT) treatment in a group of HIV-positive patients with congenital clotting disorders. Sartori, M.T., Mares, M., Zerbinati, P., Stocco, D., Girolami, A. Haematologia (Budap) (1994) [Pubmed]
  19. Plasma cell labeling index and beta 2-microglobulin predict survival independent of thymidine kinase and C-reactive protein in multiple myeloma. Greipp, P.R., Lust, J.A., O'Fallon, W.M., Katzmann, J.A., Witzig, T.E., Kyle, R.A. Blood (1993) [Pubmed]
  20. Evidence for whole chromosome 6 loss and duplication of the remaining chromosome in acute lymphoblastic leukemia. McEvoy, C.R., Morley, A.A., Firgaira, F.A. Genes Chromosomes Cancer (2003) [Pubmed]
  21. Beta 2-microglobulin restriction of antigen presentation. Pérarnau, B., Siegrist, C.A., Gillet, A., Vincent, C., Kimura, S., Lemonnier, F.A. Nature (1990) [Pubmed]
  22. The haemochromatosis protein HFE induces an apparent iron-deficient phenotype in H1299 cells that is not corrected by co-expression of beta 2-microglobulin. Wang, J., Chen, G., Pantopoulos, K. Biochem. J. (2003) [Pubmed]
  23. HLA-H and associated proteins in patients with hemochromatosis. Beutler, E., West, C., Gelbart, T. Mol. Med. (1997) [Pubmed]
  24. Selection of housekeeping genes for gene expression studies in human reticulocytes using real-time PCR. Silver, N., Best, S., Jiang, J., Thein, S.L. BMC Mol. Biol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  25. Roles for calreticulin and a novel glycoprotein, tapasin, in the interaction of MHC class I molecules with TAP. Sadasivan, B., Lehner, P.J., Ortmann, B., Spies, T., Cresswell, P. Immunity (1996) [Pubmed]
  26. Association of the transferrin receptor in human placenta with HFE, the protein defective in hereditary hemochromatosis. Parkkila, S., Waheed, A., Britton, R.S., Bacon, B.R., Zhou, X.Y., Tomatsu, S., Fleming, R.E., Sly, W.S. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1997) [Pubmed]
  27. Enhancing effect of anti-HLA class I monoclonal antibodies on T cell proliferation induced via CD2 molecule. Turco, M.C., de Felice, M., Corbo, L., Giarrusso, P.C., Yang, S.Y., Ferrone, S., Venuta, S. J. Immunol. (1988) [Pubmed]
  28. Assembly and maturation of HLA-A and HLA-B antigens in vivo. Krangel, M.S., Orr, H.T., Strominger, J.L. Cell (1979) [Pubmed]
  29. Specific associations of fluorescent beta-2-microglobulin with cell surfaces. The affinity of different H-2 and HLA antigens for beta-2-microglobulin. Hochman, J.H., Shimizu, Y., DeMars, R., Edidin, M. J. Immunol. (1988) [Pubmed]
  30. Peritoneal transport characteristics with glucose polymer based dialysate. Ho-dac-Pannekeet, M.M., Schouten, N., Langendijk, M.J., Hiralall, J.K., de Waart, D.R., Struijk, D.G., Krediet, R.T. Kidney Int. (1996) [Pubmed]
  31. Specific binding sites for monomeric and aggregated beta 2-microglobulin on surface of groups A, B, C, and G streptococci. Chhatwal, G.S., Dutra, I.S., Blobel, H. Microbiol. Immunol. (1986) [Pubmed]
  32. Current concepts in mucosal immunity. II. One size fits all: nonclassical MHC molecules fulfill multiple roles in epithelial cell function. Blumberg, R.S. Am. J. Physiol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  33. Production, crystallization, and preliminary X-ray analysis of the human MHC class Ib molecule HLA-E. O'Callaghan, C.A., Tormo, J., Willcox, B.E., Blundell, C.D., Jakobsen, B.K., Stuart, D.I., McMichael, A.J., Bell, J.I., Jones, E.Y. Protein Sci. (1998) [Pubmed]
  34. The hemochromatosis founder mutation in HLA-H disrupts beta2-microglobulin interaction and cell surface expression. Feder, J.N., Tsuchihashi, Z., Irrinki, A., Lee, V.K., Mapa, F.A., Morikang, E., Prass, C.E., Starnes, S.M., Wolff, R.K., Parkkila, S., Sly, W.S., Schatzman, R.C. J. Biol. Chem. (1997) [Pubmed]
  35. The identification of the beta 2-microglobulin binding antigen encoded by the human CD1D gene. Bilsland, C.A., Milstein, C. Eur. J. Immunol. (1991) [Pubmed]
  36. Crystal structure of monomeric human beta-2-microglobulin reveals clues to its amyloidogenic properties. Trinh, C.H., Smith, D.P., Kalverda, A.P., Phillips, S.E., Radford, S.E. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2002) [Pubmed]
  37. Differential effect of human and mouse beta 2-microglobulin on the induction and the antigenic profile of endogenous HLA-A and -B antigens synthesized by beta 2-microglobulin gene-null FO-1 melanoma cells. Wang, Z., Hu, X.Z., Tatake, R.J., Yang, S.Y., Zeff, R.A., Ferrone, S. Cancer Res. (1993) [Pubmed]
  38. Unfolding, aggregation, and seeded amyloid formation of lysine-58-cleaved beta 2-microglobulin. Heegaard, N.H., Jørgensen, T.J., Rozlosnik, N., Corlin, D.B., Pedersen, J.S., Tempesta, A.G., Roepstorff, P., Bauer, R., Nissen, M.H. Biochemistry (2005) [Pubmed]
  39. A simple method for the preparation and purification of C1 complement cleaved beta 2-microglobulin from human serum. Nissen, M.H., Johansen, B., Bjerrum, O.J. J. Immunol. Methods (1997) [Pubmed]
  40. Co-localization of the neonatal Fc gamma receptor and IgG in human placental term syncytiotrophoblasts. Kristoffersen, E.K., Matre, R. Eur. J. Immunol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  41. Functional reconstitution of human FcRn in Madin-Darby canine kidney cells requires co-expressed human beta 2-microglobulin. Claypool, S.M., Dickinson, B.L., Yoshida, M., Lencer, W.I., Blumberg, R.S. J. Biol. Chem. (2002) [Pubmed]
  42. Binding of human beta 2-microglobulin to murine EL4 thymoma cells upregulates MHC class I heavy-chain epitopes, inhibits IL-2 secretion and induces resistance to killing by natural killer cells. Claësson, M.H., Nissen, M.H. Immunol. Lett. (1994) [Pubmed]
  43. Evaluation of trophoblast HLA-G antigen with a specific monoclonal antibody. Loke, Y.W., King, A., Burrows, T., Gardner, L., Bowen, M., Hiby, S., Howlett, S., Holmes, N., Jacobs, D. Tissue Antigens (1997) [Pubmed]
  44. HLA-F is a predominantly empty, intracellular, TAP-associated MHC class Ib protein with a restricted expression pattern. Wainwright, S.D., Biro, P.A., Holmes, C.H. J. Immunol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  45. Human lymphoid cell lines as targets for DRw. Strong, D.M., Pellegrino, M.A., Ferrone, S. In vitro. (1978) [Pubmed]
  46. Alpha 2-macroglobulin protects some of the protein constituents of dialysis-associated amyloidosis from protease degradation. Gouin-Charnet, A., Mourad, G., Argilés, A. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (1997) [Pubmed]
  47. Analysis of HLA class Ia transcripts in human leukaemias. Majumder, D., Bandyopadhyay, D., Chandra, S., Mukhopadhayay, A., Mukherjee, N., Bandyopadhyay, S.K., Banerjee, S. Immunogenetics (2005) [Pubmed]
  48. Differential expression of alternatively spliced mRNA forms of the insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor in human neuroendocrine tumors. Vitale, L., Lenzi, L., Huntsman, S.A., Canaider, S., Frabetti, F., Casadei, R., Facchin, F., Carinci, P., Zannotti, M., Coppola, D., Strippoli, P. Oncol. Rep. (2006) [Pubmed]
  49. Dissociation and exchange of the beta 2-microglobulin subunit of HLA-A and HLA-B antigens. Hyafil, F., Strominger, J.L. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1979) [Pubmed]
  50. Expression of HLA-A,B,C, beta 2-microglobulin (beta 2m), HLA-DR, -DP, -DQ and of HLA-D-associated invariant chain (Ii) in soft-tissue tumors. Mechtersheimer, G., Staudter, M., Majdic, O., Dörken, B., Moldenhauer, G., Möller, P. Int. J. Cancer (1990) [Pubmed]
  51. Localization of beta 2-microglobulin in the term villous syncytiotrophoblast. Leitner, K., Ellinger, A., Zimmer, K.P., Ellinger, I., Fuchs, R. Histochem. Cell Biol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  52. Apical distribution of HFE-beta2-microglobulin is associated with inhibition of apical iron uptake in intestinal epithelia cells. Arredondo, M., Tapia, V., Rojas, A., Aguirre, P., Reyes, F., Marzolo, M.P., Núñez, M.T. Biometals (2006) [Pubmed]
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