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Disease relevance of Copepoda

  • A comparative assessment of azinphosmethyl bioaccumulation and toxicity in two estuarine meiobenthic harpacticoid copepods [1].
  • Forty-one Tnpho A mutants of Vibrio cholerae O1 classical strain CD81 were analyzed for their ability to interact with chitin particles, Tigriopus fulvus copepods and the Intestine 407 cell line compared to the parent strain [2].

High impact information on Copepoda

  • Cholera, copepods, and chitinase [3].
  • The most important metazoan parasites of farmed Atlantic salmon are the sea lice Lepeophtheirus salmonis and Caligus elongatus [4].
  • Sugar competition experiments showed interference with adhesion to both copepods and chitin by GlcNAc and only to copepods by D-mannose [5].
  • These primer pairs, as well as the previously designed primer pairs for the small ribosomal RNA (srRNA) gene (500 bp), were applied for 20 species representing four orders of both calanoid and non-calanoid copepods and amplification of sequences from at least one species from each order was successful [6].
  • Bioaccumulation factors (BAFs) for individual polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners in Barents Sea and White Sea marine calanoid copepods were 1-3 orders of magnitude higher than BAFs in the same species in Canadian and Alaskan Arctic Ocean areas, and in freshwater plankton (Lake Ontario) reported from the mid- to early 1980s [7].

Chemical compound and disease context of Copepoda


Biological context of Copepoda


Anatomical context of Copepoda

  • We tested the hypothesis that copepods maintain the cholesterol contents of their biological membranes despite varying dietary levels of cholesterol [13].
  • Such a decrease in carotenoid reserves may also have a negative impact on the copepods' immune system as individuals that decreased their reserves suffered higher parasite prevalence upon exposure to the cestode Schistocephalus solidus [14].

Associations of Copepoda with chemical compounds

  • As fipronil (1) has a high K(ow), (2) is persistent in sediments where meiobenthic copepods live, and (3) has been detected in estuarine waters >0.7 microg/L, it may pose high risk to copepod production in estuarine systems [15].
  • Omnivorous and carnivorous copepods showed average levels of cholesta-5,24-dien-3beta-ol below 25% [10].
  • When exposed to the same number of coracidia, copepods harboured considerably less procercoids in the trials where ciliates or Artemia salina nauplii were given as alternative food items [16].
  • The two copepod fatty acid analyses differed quantitatively in triglyceride 20:1 and 22:1 and also in 20:5 omega 3 and 22:6 omega 3, confirming the primary role of the wax esters in copepods [17].
  • Three species of reptiles, Natrix natrix, Natrix tessellata and Lacerta viridis, were fed with experimentally infected copepods containing a large number of infective plerocercoids I [18].

Gene context of Copepoda

  • The frequency of females carrying egg sacs was lower among infected than among exposed uninfected and unexposed copepods [16].
  • The elimination rate constants of DDT by the copepods were comparable following uptake from the diet and from the water [19].
  • Stage-I juvenile copepods were individually reared to adults in aqueous microvolumes of the phenylpyrazole insecticide, fipronil, and whole-body homogenate extracts were assayed for VTN levels [20].
  • The need for speed. I. Fast reactions and myelinated axons in copepods [21].
  • The main species were: Argyrodiaptomus furcatus (Sars), Notodiaptomus iheringi (Wright), Mesocyclops longisetus (Thiébaud), Thermocyclops decipiens (Fischer), and T. minutus (Lowndes) [22].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Copepoda


  1. A comparative assessment of azinphosmethyl bioaccumulation and toxicity in two estuarine meiobenthic harpacticoid copepods. Klosterhaus, S.L., DiPinto, L.M., Chandler, G.T. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. (2003) [Pubmed]
  2. Vibrio cholerae persistence in aquatic environments and colonization of intestinal cells: involvement of a common adhesion mechanism. Zampini, M., Pruzzo, C., Bondre, V.P., Tarsi, R., Cosmo, M., Bacciaglia, A., Chhabra, A., Srivastava, R., Srivastava, B.S. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. (2005) [Pubmed]
  3. Cholera, copepods, and chitinase. Nalin, D.R. Lancet (1976) [Pubmed]
  4. Sea lice--major pathogens of farmed atlantic salmon. Pike, A.W. Parasitol. Today (Regul. Ed.) (1989) [Pubmed]
  5. Persistence of Enterococcus faecalis in aquatic environments via surface interactions with copepods. Signoretto, C., Burlacchini, G., Pruzzo, C., Canepari, P. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  6. Large-scale gene rearrangements in the mitochondrial genomes of two calanoid copepods Eucalanus bungii and Neocalanus cristatus (Crustacea), with notes on new versatile primers for the srRNA and COI genes. Machida, R.J., Miya, M.U., Nishida, M., Nishida, S. Gene (2004) [Pubmed]
  7. Bioaccumulation factors for PCBs revisited. Borgå, K., Fisk, A.T., Hargrave, B., Hoekstra, P.F., Swackhamer, D., Muir, D.C. Environ. Sci. Technol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  8. Reproductive and developmental effects of endocrine disrupters in invertebrates: in vitro and in vivo approaches. Hutchinson, T.H. Toxicol. Lett. (2002) [Pubmed]
  9. Toxicity of methoprene to all stages of the salt marsh copepod, Apocyclops spartinus (Cyclopoida). Bircher, L., Ruber, E. J. Am. Mosq. Control Assoc. (1988) [Pubmed]
  10. Differences in the sterol composition of dominant Antarctic zooplankton. Mühlebach, A., Albers, C., Kattner, G. Lipids (1999) [Pubmed]
  11. Sequence variation in four mitochondrial genes of the salmon louse Lepeophtheirus salmonis. Tjensvoll, K., Glover, K.A., Nylund, A. Dis. Aquat. Org. (2006) [Pubmed]
  12. Copepod feeding in a tuna fishery area of the tropical Atlantic Ocean. Champalbert, G., Pagano, M. C. R. Biol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  13. A cholesterol-enriched diet enhances egg production and egg viability without altering cholesterol Content of biological membranes in the copepod Acartia hudsonica. Crockett, E.L., Hassett, R.P. Physiol. Biochem. Zool. (2005) [Pubmed]
  14. Costly carotenoids: a trade-off between predation and infection risk? van Der Veen, I.T. J. Evol. Biol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  15. Phenylpyrazole insecticide fipronil induces male infertility in the estuarine meiobenthic crustacean Amphiascus tenuiremis. Cary, T.L., Chandler, G.T., Volz, D.C., Walse, S.S., Ferry, J.L. Environ. Sci. Technol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  16. Factors affecting abundance of Triaenophorus infection in Cyclops strenuus, and parasite-induced changes in host fitness. Pasternak, A.F., Pulkkinen, K., Mikheev, V.N., Hasu, T., Valtonen, E.T. Int. J. Parasitol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  17. Fatty alcohols in capelin, herring and mackerel oils and muscle lipids: II. A comparison of fatty acids from wax esters with those of triglycerides. Ratnayake, W.N., Ackman, R.G. Lipids (1979) [Pubmed]
  18. Development of the plerocercoid I of Ophiotaenia europaea in reptiles. Biserkov, V., Kostadinova, A. Int. J. Parasitol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  19. Uptake, absorption efficiency and elimination of DDT in marine phytoplankton, copepods and fish. Wang, X., Wang, W.X. Environ. Pollut. (2005) [Pubmed]
  20. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for lipovitellin quantification in copepods: a screening tool for endocrine toxicity. Volz, D.C., Chandler, G.T. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. (2004) [Pubmed]
  21. The need for speed. I. Fast reactions and myelinated axons in copepods. Lenz, P.H., Hartline, D.K., Davis, A.D. J. Comp. Physiol. A (2000) [Pubmed]
  22. Short-term variability of copepod abundance in Jurumirim Reservoir, Sao Paulo, Brazil. Panarelli, E.A., Nogueira, M.G., Henry, R. Brazilian journal of biology = Revista brasleira de biologia. (2001) [Pubmed]
  23. Selective oviposition by Aedes aegypti (Diptera: culicidae) in response to Mesocyclops longisetus (Copepoda: Cyclopoidea) under laboratory and field conditions. Torres-Estrada, J.L., Rodríguez, M.H., Cruz-López, L., Arredondo-Jimenez, J.I. J. Med. Entomol. (2001) [Pubmed]
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