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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)
MeSH Review


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Disease relevance of Urethritis


Psychiatry related information on Urethritis


High impact information on Urethritis

  • We conclude that a two-dose, single-day regimen of orally administered norfloxacin is effective therapy for uncomplicated urethritis caused by penicillin-resistant strains of N. gonorrhoeae [7].
  • One hundred and seven men with culture-proved gonococcal urethritis were given a single dose of either procaine penicillin G, 4.8 million U, or cefoxitin, 2 g, intramuscularly [1].
  • Postgonococcal urethritis in men was less common after tetracycline than after spectinomycin (P less than 0.005) [8].
  • CONCLUSIONS--For empirical treatment of the acute nongonococcal urethritis syndrome in men, a single oral dose of azithromycin was as effective as a standard 7-day course of doxycycline in achieving clinical cure [9].
  • OBJECTIVE--To evaluate the use of single-dose azithromycin for empirical treatment of nongonococcal urethritis [9].

Chemical compound and disease context of Urethritis


Biological context of Urethritis


Anatomical context of Urethritis


Gene context of Urethritis

  • The transferrin receptor mutant was incapable of initiating urethritis, although the same inoculum size of the wild-type parent strain, FA1090, causes urethritis in >90% of inoculated volunteers [21].
  • HBD1 was not detectable in secretions, and HBD2 was only induced in a small proportion of the urethritis patients; however, HD5 and HNP1-3 were increased in C. trachomatis infection and significantly elevated in N. gonorrhoeae infection [22].
  • Analysis of the gyrA and parC genes of Mycoplasma genitalium detected in first-pass urine of men with non-gonococcal urethritis before and after fluoroquinolone treatment [23].
  • Using the esterase test to screen asymptomatic males for urethritis, we identified 38 culture-verified infections that otherwise would have remained undetected [16].
  • The sensitivity of FCU examination in identifying culture-positive urethritis was 95%, the specificity 93%, and the predictive value of a positive FCU 91% [24].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Urethritis


  1. Cefoxitin as a single-dose treatment for urethritis caused by penicillinase-producing Neisseria gonorrhoeae. Berg, S.W., Kilpatrick, M.E., Harrison, W.O., McCutchan, J.A. N. Engl. J. Med. (1979) [Pubmed]
  2. Genital and neonatal chlamydial infection in a trachoma endemic area. Mabey, D.C., Whittle, H.C. Lancet (1982) [Pubmed]
  3. Minocycline compared with doxycycline in the treatment of nongonococcal urethritis and mucopurulent cervicitis. Romanowski, B., Talbot, H., Stadnyk, M., Kowalchuk, P., Bowie, W.R. Ann. Intern. Med. (1993) [Pubmed]
  4. Tetracycline-resistant Ureaplasma urealyticum: a cause of persistent nongonococcal urethritis. Stimson, J.B., Hale, J., Bowie, W.R., Holmes, K.K. Ann. Intern. Med. (1981) [Pubmed]
  5. Erythromycin for persistent or recurrent nongonococcal urethritis. A randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Hooton, T.M., Wong, E.S., Barnes, R.C., Roberts, P.L., Stamm, W.E. Ann. Intern. Med. (1990) [Pubmed]
  6. Comparison of azithromycin and doxycycline in the treatment of non-gonococcal urethritis in men. Lister, P.J., Balechandran, T., Ridgway, G.L., Robinson, A.J. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. (1993) [Pubmed]
  7. Treatment of penicillin-resistant Neisseria gonorrhoeae with oral norfloxacin. Crider, S.R., Colby, S.D., Miller, L.K., Harrison, W.O., Kerbs, S.B., Berg, S.W. N. Engl. J. Med. (1984) [Pubmed]
  8. Spectinomycin versus tetracycline for the treatment of gonorrhea. Karney, W.W., Pedersen, A.H., Nelson, M., Adams, H., Pfeifer, R.T., Holmes, K.K. N. Engl. J. Med. (1977) [Pubmed]
  9. Azithromycin for empirical treatment of the nongonococcal urethritis syndrome in men. A randomized double-blind study. Stamm, W.E., Hicks, C.B., Martin, D.H., Leone, P., Hook, E.W., Cooper, R.H., Cohen, M.S., Batteiger, B.E., Workowski, K., McCormack, W.M. JAMA (1995) [Pubmed]
  10. Ciprofloxacin compared with doxycycline for nongonococcal urethritis. Ineffectiveness against Chlamydia trachomatis due to relapsing infection. Hooton, T.M., Rogers, M.E., Medina, T.G., Kuwamura, L.E., Ewers, C., Roberts, P.L., Stamm, W.E. JAMA (1990) [Pubmed]
  11. Azithromycin in chlamydial urethritis. Workowski, K.A., Johnson, R.B., Verdon, M., Stamm, W.E. JAMA (1993) [Pubmed]
  12. Therapy of gonorrhea. Comparison of trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and ampicillin. Sattler, F.R., Ruskin, J. JAMA (1978) [Pubmed]
  13. Comparison of erythromycin base and estolate in gonococcal urethritis. Brown, S.T., Pedersen, H.B., Holmes, K.K. JAMA (1977) [Pubmed]
  14. Evaluation of plasmids in tetracycline resistant strains of Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Ureaplasma urealyticum in a case of severe urethritis. Jahn, G., Bialasiewicz, A.A., Blenk, H. Eur. J. Epidemiol. (1985) [Pubmed]
  15. Detection of human papillomavirus type 16 DNA sequences in paraffin-embedded tissues from the female urinary tract. Aglianò, A.M., Gazzaniga, P., Cervigni, M., Gradilone, A., Napolitano, M., Pastore, L.I., Manzari, V., Frati, L., Vecchione, A. Urologia internationalis. (1994) [Pubmed]
  16. Urinary leukocyte esterase screening test for asymptomatic chlamydial and gonococcal infections in males. Shafer, M.A., Schachter, J., Moscicki, A.B., Weiss, A., Shalwitz, J., Vaughan, E., Millstein, S.G. JAMA (1989) [Pubmed]
  17. Urethritis caused by Neisseria meningitidis group B: a case report. Hartmann, A.A., Elsner, P. Sexually transmitted diseases. (1988) [Pubmed]
  18. Peripheral blood T cell proliferative response to chlamydial organisms in gonococcal and non-gonococcal urethritis and presumed pelvic inflammatory disease. Shahmanesh, M., Brunst, M., Sukthankar, A., Pearce, J.H., Gaston, J.S. Sexually transmitted infections. (1999) [Pubmed]
  19. Interleukin-8 levels in seminal plasma in chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome and nonspecific urethritis. Khadra, A., Fletcher, P., Luzzi, G., Shattock, R., Hay, P. BJU international. (2006) [Pubmed]
  20. Sultamicillin in the treatment of urinary tract infections. Kawada, Y. APMIS Suppl. (1989) [Pubmed]
  21. The transferrin receptor expressed by gonococcal strain FA1090 is required for the experimental infection of human male volunteers. Cornelissen, C.N., Kelley, M., Hobbs, M.M., Anderson, J.E., Cannon, J.G., Cohen, M.S., Sparling, P.F. Mol. Microbiol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  22. Distinct defensin profiles in Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Chlamydia trachomatis urethritis reveal novel epithelial cell-neutrophil interactions. Porter, E., Yang, H., Yavagal, S., Preza, G.C., Murillo, O., Lima, H., Greene, S., Mahoozi, L., Klein-Patel, M., Diamond, G., Gulati, S., Ganz, T., Rice, P.A., Quayle, A.J. Infect. Immun. (2005) [Pubmed]
  23. Analysis of the gyrA and parC genes of Mycoplasma genitalium detected in first-pass urine of men with non-gonococcal urethritis before and after fluoroquinolone treatment. Deguchi, T., Maeda, S., Tamaki, M., Yoshida, T., Ishiko, H., Ito, M., Yokoi, S., Takahashi, Y., Ishihara, S. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. (2001) [Pubmed]
  24. Screening for Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae in adolescent males: value of first-catch urine examination. Adger, H., Shafer, M.A., Sweet, R.L., Schachter, J. Lancet (1984) [Pubmed]
  25. Association of antibodies to Chlamydia trachomatis heat-shock protein 60 kD with chronic nongonococcal urethritis. Horner, P.J., Cain, D., McClure, M., Thomas, B.J., Gilroy, C., Ali, M., Weber, J.N., Taylor-Robinson, D. Clin. Infect. Dis. (1997) [Pubmed]
  26. Diagnosis of male Chlamydia trachomatis urethritis by polymerase chain reaction. Wiesenfeld, H.C., Uhrin, M., Dixon, B.W., Sweet, R.L. Sexually transmitted diseases. (1994) [Pubmed]
  27. A single large dose of trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole fails to cure gonococcal urethritis in men. Prior, R.B., Fass, R.J., Perkins, R.L. Sexually transmitted diseases. (1978) [Pubmed]
  28. Prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae in Turkey among men With urethritis. Agacfidan, A., Moncada, J., Aydin, D., Onel, M., Alp, T., Isik, N., Badur, S., Ang, O. Sexually transmitted diseases. (2001) [Pubmed]
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