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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)
MeSH Review


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Disease relevance of Geobacter

  • In this study, we show that the insoluble and colloidal Fe(III)-cyanide complex Prussian Blue can be reduced and utilized as electron acceptor by the dissimilatory iron-reducing bacteria Geobacter metallireducens and Shewanella alga strain BrY [1].
  • In contrast, Desulfuromonas and Geobacter species have a respiratory metabolism with Fe(III) serving as the common terminal electron acceptor in all species [2].
  • Uncut chromosomal and fragments from endonuclease-digested chromosomal DNA from these species, as well as Geobacter sulphurreducens organisms, hybridized with a nifHDK probe from Rhodospirillum rubrum, indicating the presence of these nitrogenase structural genes in these organisms [3].
  • The positive signals were also obtained from Geobacter metallireducens and xylene-degrading sulfate-reducing bacterium (strain mXyS1) but not from other aromatics-degrading sulfate-reducing bacteria and aerobic bacteria [4].

High impact information on Geobacter

  • This approach to the use of an insoluble electron acceptor may explain why Geobacter species predominate over other Fe(III) oxide-reducing microorganisms in a wide variety of sedimentary environments [5].
  • Gene clusters involved in anaerobic benzoate degradation of Geobacter metallireducens [6].
  • We also found two dnmt2 members in the bacterial genus Geobacter, suggesting that horizontal transfers of MTases occurred between eukaryotes and prokaryotes [7].
  • In addition, Geobacter species specifically express flagella and pili during growth on Fe(III) and Mn(IV) oxides and are chemotactic to Fe(II) and Mn(II), which may lead Geobacter species to the oxides under anoxic conditions [8].
  • The mechanism of fumarate reduction in Geobacter sulfurreducens was investigated [9].

Chemical compound and disease context of Geobacter

  • Preferential reduction of FeIII over fumarate by Geobacter sulfurreducens [10].
  • Evidence for iron-dependent nitrate respiration in the dissimilatory iron-reducing bacterium Geobacter metallireducens [11].
  • Analysis of 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) sequences and phospholipid fatty acid profiles demonstrated that the initial loss of uranium from the groundwater was associated with an enrichment of Geobacter species in the treatment zone [12].
  • Organisms with 16S rDNA sequences most closely related to those of sulfate reducers became predominant, and Geobacter species became a minor component of the community [12].
  • Crude extracts of Geobacter sulfurreducens catalyzed the NADPH-dependent reduction of Fe(III)-nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA) [13].

Biological context of Geobacter


Anatomical context of Geobacter

  • Studies with the dissimilatory Fe(III)-reducing microorganism Geobacter metallireducens demonstrated that the common technique of separating Fe(III)-reducing microorganisms and Fe(III) oxides with semipermeable membranes in order to determine whether the Fe(III) reducers release electron-shuttling compounds and/or Fe(III) chelators is invalid [19].

Gene context of Geobacter

  • This sequence is also present upstream of the Geobacter metallireducens lexA gene, indicating that it is the LexA box of this bacterial genus [20].
  • Characterization of citrate synthase from Geobacter sulfurreducens and evidence for a family of citrate synthases similar to those of eukaryotes throughout the Geobacteraceae [17].
  • When Geobacter sulfurreducens was grown without a source of fixed nitrogen in chemostats with acetate provided as the limiting electron donor and Fe(III) as the electron acceptor, levels of nifD transcripts were 4 to 5 orders of magnitude higher than in chemostat cultures provided with ammonium [21].
  • Therefore, the potential for using levels of citrate synthase mRNA to estimate rates of Geobacter metabolism was evaluated in pure culture studies and in four different Geobacteraceae-dominated environments [22].
  • Solids were collected from a culture of Geobacter metallireducens (GS-15) thatwas incubated with ferrihydrite (as the electron acceptor) for 0, 7, 10, 20, 75, and 400 days [23].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Geobacter

  • Isolation, characterization and gene sequence analysis of a membrane-associated 89 kDa Fe(III) reducing cytochrome c from Geobacter sulfurreducens [24].
  • DNA microarray and proteomic analyses of the RpoS regulon in Geobacter sulfurreducens [15].
  • Water samples from Northport, ME and the Branch Lake region of Ellsworth, ME, which both have elevated groundwater arsenic levels, have been probed using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), to determine the percentage of the population that is NP4 and the percentage that are Geobacter species [25].


  1. Reduction of Prussian Blue by the two iron-reducing microorganisms Geobacter metallireducens and Shewanella alga. Jahn, M.K., Haderlein, S.B., Meckenstock, R.U. Environ. Microbiol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  2. Fe(III) and S0 reduction by Pelobacter carbinolicus. Lovley, D.R., Phillips, E.J., Lonergan, D.J., Widman, P.K. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  3. N2-dependent growth and nitrogenase activity in the metal-metabolizing bacteria, Geobacter and Magnetospirillum species. Bazylinski, D.A., Dean, A.J., Schüler, D., Phillips, E.J., Lovley, D.R. Environ. Microbiol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  4. Development of a PCR method for the detection and quantification of benzoyl-CoA reductase genes and its application to monitored natural attenuation. Hosoda, A., Kasai, Y., Hamamura, N., Takahata, Y., Watanabe, K. Biodegradation (2005) [Pubmed]
  5. Geobacter metallireducens accesses insoluble Fe(III) oxide by chemotaxis. Childers, S.E., Ciufo, S., Lovley, D.R. Nature (2002) [Pubmed]
  6. Gene clusters involved in anaerobic benzoate degradation of Geobacter metallireducens. Wischgoll, S., Heintz, D., Peters, F., Erxleben, A., Sarnighausen, E., Reski, R., Van Dorsselaer, A., Boll, M. Mol. Microbiol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  7. Evolutionary diversification of DNA methyltransferases in eukaryotic genomes. Ponger, L., Li, W.H. Mol. Biol. Evol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  8. Dissimilatory Fe(III) and Mn(IV) reduction. Lovley, D.R., Holmes, D.E., Nevin, K.P. Adv. Microb. Physiol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  9. Genetic characterization of a single bifunctional enzyme for fumarate reduction and succinate oxidation in Geobacter sulfurreducens and engineering of fumarate reduction in Geobacter metallireducens. Butler, J.E., Glaven, R.H., Esteve-Núñez, A., Núñez, C., Shelobolina, E.S., Bond, D.R., Lovley, D.R. J. Bacteriol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  10. Preferential reduction of FeIII over fumarate by Geobacter sulfurreducens. Esteve-Núñez, A., Núñez, C., Lovley, D.R. J. Bacteriol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  11. Evidence for iron-dependent nitrate respiration in the dissimilatory iron-reducing bacterium Geobacter metallireducens. Senko, J.M., Stolz, J.F. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  12. Stimulating the in situ activity of Geobacter species to remove uranium from the groundwater of a uranium-contaminated aquifer. Anderson, R.T., Vrionis, H.A., Ortiz-Bernad, I., Resch, C.T., Long, P.E., Dayvault, R., Karp, K., Marutzky, S., Metzler, D.R., Peacock, A., White, D.C., Lowe, M., Lovley, D.R. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  13. Isolation and characterization of a soluble NADPH-dependent Fe(III) reductase from Geobacter sulfurreducens. Kaufmann, F., Lovley, D.R. J. Bacteriol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  14. DNA microarray analysis of nitrogen fixation and Fe(III) reduction in Geobacter sulfurreducens. Methé, B.A., Webster, J., Nevin, K., Butler, J., Lovley, D.R. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  15. DNA microarray and proteomic analyses of the RpoS regulon in Geobacter sulfurreducens. Núñez, C., Esteve-Núñez, A., Giometti, C., Tollaksen, S., Khare, T., Lin, W., Lovley, D.R., Methé, B.A. J. Bacteriol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  16. Geobacter lovleyi sp. nov. strain SZ, a novel metal-reducing and tetrachloroethene-dechlorinating bacterium. Sung, Y., Fletcher, K.E., Ritalahti, K.M., Apkarian, R.P., Ramos-Hernández, N., Sanford, R.A., Mesbah, N.M., Löffler, F.E. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  17. Characterization of citrate synthase from Geobacter sulfurreducens and evidence for a family of citrate synthases similar to those of eukaryotes throughout the Geobacteraceae. Bond, D.R., Mester, T., Nesbø, C.L., Izquierdo-Lopez, A.V., Collart, F.L., Lovley, D.R. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  18. A novel Geobacteraceae-specific outer membrane protein J (OmpJ) is essential for electron transport to Fe(III) and Mn(IV) oxides in Geobacter sulfurreducens. Afkar, E., Reguera, G., Schiffer, M., Lovley, D.R. BMC Microbiol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  19. Lack of production of electron-shuttling compounds or solubilization of Fe(III) during reduction of insoluble Fe(III) oxide by Geobacter metallireducens. Nevin, K.P., Lovley, D.R. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  20. Geobacter sulfurreducens has two autoregulated lexA genes whose products do not bind the recA promoter: differing responses of lexA and recA to DNA damage. Jara, M., Núñez, C., Campoy, S., Fernández de Henestrosa, A.R., Lovley, D.R., Barbé, J. J. Bacteriol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  21. In situ expression of nifD in Geobacteraceae in subsurface sediments. Holmes, D.E., Nevin, K.P., Lovley, D.R. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  22. Potential for quantifying expression of the Geobacteraceae citrate synthase gene to assess the activity of Geobacteraceae in the subsurface and on current-harvesting electrodes. Holmes, D.E., Nevin, K.P., O'Neil, R.A., Ward, J.E., Adams, L.A., Woodard, T.L., Vrionis, H.A., Lovley, D.R. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  23. Hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine transformation by biologically reduced ferrihydrite: evolution of Fe mineralogy, surface area, and reaction rates. Williams, A.G., Gregory, K.B., Parkin, G.F., Scherer, M.M. Environ. Sci. Technol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  24. Isolation, characterization and gene sequence analysis of a membrane-associated 89 kDa Fe(III) reducing cytochrome c from Geobacter sulfurreducens. Magnuson, T.S., Isoyama, N., Hodges-Myerson, A.L., Davidson, G., Maroney, M.J., Geesey, G.G., Lovley, D.R. Biochem. J. (2001) [Pubmed]
  25. Correlations between arsenic in Maine groundwater and microbial populations as determined by fluorescence in situ hybridization. Weldon, J.M., Macrae, J.D. Chemosphere (2006) [Pubmed]
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