The world's first wiki where authorship really matters (Nature Genetics, 2008). Due credit and reputation for authors. Imagine a global collaborative knowledge base for original thoughts. Search thousands of articles and collaborate with scientists around the globe.

wikigene or wiki gene protein drug chemical gene disease author authorship tracking collaborative publishing evolutionary knowledge reputation system wiki2.0 global collaboration genes proteins drugs chemicals diseases compound
Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)



Gene Review

CS  -  citrate synthase

Homo sapiens

Synonyms: Citrate (Si)-synthase, Citrate synthase, mitochondrial
Welcome! If you are familiar with the subject of this article, you can contribute to this open access knowledge base by deleting incorrect information, restructuring or completely rewriting any text. Read more.

Disease relevance of CS

  • Enhanced citrate synthase activity in human pancreatic cancer [1].
  • RESULTS: The average of citrate synthase activity in human pancreatic ductal carcinoma is significantly higher comparing with adjacent nonneoplastic tissue: 40.2 +/- 27.2 and 18.3 +/- 13.6 nmole/min/mg protein, respectively (P = 0.001) [1].
  • Elevated levels of hemoglobin, triglycerides and rheumatoid factors did not interfere in the Stratus CS method but hyperbilirubinemia caused a positive difference [2].
  • RESULTS: Myocardial activities of citrate synthase as well as contents of coenzyme Q10 and myoglobin in patients with ischaemic heart disease were not different from those of the reference group, and no linear relation was found between these three markers on the one hand and thallium uptake on the other [3].
  • 3-OH-acyl-CoA-dehydrogenase, citrate synthase and cytochrome-c-oxidase activities were still comparatively high in patients with gangrenous foot ulcers, indicating some maintenance of the muscle viability even in situations with very low blood flow [4].

Psychiatry related information on CS

  • The anti-CS nAAbs by participating in the nAb network, could function in innate defense mechanisms and at the same time recognize a target antigen (nucleosome) in a systemic autoimmune disease [5].
  • Individual variation in endurance correlates with individual differences in heart LDH and thigh CS and/or PK activities [6].

High impact information on CS


Chemical compound and disease context of CS


Biological context of CS

  • Myoglobin content and activities of CS and ASAT were not related to left ventricular function [15].
  • The similar levels of nucleotides, CS, HD, and glycogen and the normal increase in blood lactate during exercise indicates a normal oxidative phosphorylation [16].
  • Activity level of marker enzymes of the Krebs cycle (CS) and of the electron-transfert chain (COX) significantly increased in males (18% and 16%; P < 0.05) as well as in females (31% and 19%; P < 0.05) [17].
  • The primary sequence of CS deduced from its nucleotide sequence reveals a highly conserved, albeit slightly larger, protein of 466 amino acids, with 95% homology to its pig homologue [18].
  • The data also indicate that the human genomic CS gene contains no introns, and confirms the location of the human CS gene on chromosome 12 [18].

Anatomical context of CS

  • The subendocardial layer and papillary muscle of the left ventricle had a higher Mb content than the subepicardial layer, whereas CS activity was similar in these three locations [19].
  • The citrate synthase (CS) activity was 60% higher in trained than in untrained skeletal muscle [20].
  • Myoglobin, muscle fibre diameter, and citrate synthase activity were measured in leg muscle of untrained and trained men and in the myocardium from the apex of the left ventricle and from papillary muscle in patients subjected to open heart surgery [20].
  • The claudication leg had higher activities of a marker enzyme for mitochondrial oxidative capacity, citrate synthase (CS), as well as of the MB and the mitochondrial isoenzyme of creatine kinase (CK), which are considered to be involved in the transfer of high energy phosphate from the mitochondria to the resynthesis of ATP in the cytoplasm [21].
  • These findings suggest differential responses of skeletal and cardiac muscles in CS enzymatic activity but similar responses in CS gene expression at 1 and 48 h after the last session of endurance training [22].

Associations of CS with chemical compounds

  • A significant inverse relationship was found between the percent changes in the activity of CS and HADH, and the percent changes in arterial lactic acid during exercise (p = 0.01) [23].
  • Using a stepwise regression analysis, percentage predicted functional residual capacity (FRC), the activity of CS, oxygen desaturation during exercise, age, and inspiratory capacity (% pred) were found to be significant determinants of peak VO(2) [24].
  • High CS and SDH activities were detected in both strains, as compared with other trypanosomatids, bringing more evidence for an actively functional citric-acid cycle in L. infantum [25].
  • 3. Some significant correlations were established, both between the activities of individual enzymes (TPDH, GPDH, HK, CS, HOADH) and between the enzymes and indicators of functional capacity (MDH, CS, HOADH, VO2max, HRmax, O2-pulse max, body fat, laboratory performance) [26].
  • Cortisol treatment of metyrapone-treated fish induced CS activity by approximately 2.5-fold, which was blocked after administration of actinomycin D or cycloheximide [27].

Physical interactions of CS

  • Citrate synthase-corrected complex II-III activity was markedly reduced in both HD caudate (-29%) and putamen (-67%), and complex IV activity was reduced in HD putamen (-62%) [28].
  • The wFKBP73 interacts transiently with non-native CS and slows down its inactivation kinetics, whereas the mammalian homologue, hFKBP52 binds tightly to CS and does not affect its rate of inactivation [29].

Regulatory relationships of CS


Other interactions of CS

  • No significant correlations were found between the CVX/CCV for CS, CK or CK-MB on the one hand and the Cobb's angle on the other [32].
  • Indicators of glycolysis--PFK, GAPDH and LD3--varied independently of CS [33].
  • Slow component of [V]O(2) kinetics: the effect of training status, fibre type, UCP3 mRNA and citrate synthase activity [34].
  • In this study we investigated the relationship between the magnitude of the relative SC, citrate synthase activity, UCP2 and UCP3 mRNA levels and muscle fibre composition in both endurance-trained and recreationally active subjects [34].
  • There was no significant difference in CS, HD, glycogen or nucleotides [16].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of CS

  • Citrate synthase, ASAT, CK, CK-MB, CK-MIT and LD activities were decreased (12-30%) after the postoperative leg immobilization period [35].
  • The epitope specificities of the autoantibodies were measured on synthetic overlapping peptide sequences of CS enzyme by an indirect multi-pin ELISA method [36].
  • Our findings suggest a possible role of CS-specific autoantibodies in the pathomechanism of allograft vasculopathy [36].
  • Detection of citrate synthase-reacting autoantibodies after heart transplantation: an epitope mapping study [36].
  • We evaluated the analytical performance of the Stratus CS fluorometric enzyme immunoassay based on dendrimer technology, and claimed to achieve a fast and reliable determination of plasma myoglobin concentrations [2].


  1. Enhanced citrate synthase activity in human pancreatic cancer. Schlichtholz, B., Turyn, J., Goyke, E., Biernacki, M., Jaskiewicz, K., Sledzinski, Z., Swierczynski, J. Pancreas (2005) [Pubmed]
  2. Evaluation of the Stratus CS fluorometer for the determination of plasma myoglobin. Couck, P., Claeys, R., Vanderstraeten, E., Gorus, F.K. Acta clinica Belgica. (2005) [Pubmed]
  3. Increased expression of the lactate dehydrogenase M subunit in myocardial regions with decreased thallium uptake. Lin, L., Kaijser, L., Liska, J., Sylvén, C., Holmgren, A., Lindström, K., Jansson, E. Cardiovasc. Res. (1993) [Pubmed]
  4. Enzyme activities in skeletal muscles from patients with peripheral arterial insufficiency. Bylund, A.C., Hammarsten, J., Holm, J., Scherstén, T. Eur. J. Clin. Invest. (1976) [Pubmed]
  5. A possible new bridge between innate and adaptive immunity: Are the anti-mitochondrial citrate synthase autoantibodies components of the natural antibody network? Czömpöly, T., Olasz, K., Simon, D., Nyárády, Z., Pálinkás, L., Czirják, L., Berki, T., Németh, P. Mol. Immunol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  6. Seasonal, sexual, and individual variation in endurance and activity metabolism in lizards. Garland, T., Else, P.L. Am. J. Physiol. (1987) [Pubmed]
  7. Chronic Bartonella quintana bacteremia in homeless patients. Brouqui, P., Lascola, B., Roux, V., Raoult, D. N. Engl. J. Med. (1999) [Pubmed]
  8. The effect of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus and obesity on glucose transport and phosphorylation in skeletal muscle. Kelley, D.E., Mintun, M.A., Watkins, S.C., Simoneau, J.A., Jadali, F., Fredrickson, A., Beattie, J., Thériault, R. J. Clin. Invest. (1996) [Pubmed]
  9. Skeletal muscle utilization of free fatty acids in women with visceral obesity. Colberg, S.R., Simoneau, J.A., Thaete, F.L., Kelley, D.E. J. Clin. Invest. (1995) [Pubmed]
  10. Characterization of capsaicin synthase and identification of its gene (csy1) for pungency factor capsaicin in pepper (Capsicum sp.). Prasad, B.C., Kumar, V., Gururaj, H.B., Parimalan, R., Giridhar, P., Ravishankar, G.A. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2006) [Pubmed]
  11. Characterization of cystathionine synthase as a selectable, liver-specific trait in rat hepatomas. Goss, S.J. J. Cell. Sci. (1986) [Pubmed]
  12. Impairment of antimicrobial activity and nitric oxide production in alveolar macrophages from smokers of marijuana and cocaine. Shay, A.H., Choi, R., Whittaker, K., Salehi, K., Kitchen, C.M., Tashkin, D.P., Roth, M.D., Baldwin, G.C. J. Infect. Dis. (2003) [Pubmed]
  13. Myocardial metabolism in ischemic heart disease: basic principles and application to imaging by positron emission tomography. Camici, P., Ferrannini, E., Opie, L.H. Progress in cardiovascular diseases. (1989) [Pubmed]
  14. Dynamics of creatine kinase shuttle enzymes in the human heart. Sylvén, C., Lin, L., Kallner, A., Sotonyi, P., Somogyi, E., Jansson, E. Eur. J. Clin. Invest. (1991) [Pubmed]
  15. Key enzymes of myocardial energy metabolism in patients with valvular heart disease: relation to left ventricular function. Sylvén, C., Jansson, E., Böök, K. Acta Physiol. Scand. (1988) [Pubmed]
  16. Skeletal muscle mitochondrial function and exercise capacity in HIV-infected patients with lipodystrophy and elevated p-lactate levels. Røge, B.T., Calbet, J.A., Møller, K., Ullum, H., Hendel, H.W., Gerstoft, J., Pedersen, B.K. AIDS (2002) [Pubmed]
  17. Electrical stimulation-induced changes in skeletal muscle enzymes of men and women. Gauthier, J.M., Thériault, R., Thériault, G., Gélinas, Y., Simoneau, J.A. Medicine and science in sports and exercise. (1992) [Pubmed]
  18. Cloning and molecular analysis of the human citrate synthase gene. Goldenthal, M.J., Marin-Garcia, J., Ananthakrishnan, R. Genome (1998) [Pubmed]
  19. Myoglobin content and citrate synthase activity in different parts of the normal human heart. Lin, L., Sylvén, C., Sotonyi, P., Somogyi, E., Kaijser, L., Jansson, E. J. Appl. Physiol. (1990) [Pubmed]
  20. Myoglobin content in human skeletal muscle and myocardium: relation to fibre size and oxidative capacity. Sylvén, C., Jansson, E., Böök, K. Cardiovasc. Res. (1984) [Pubmed]
  21. Calf muscle adaptation in intermittent claudication. Side-differences in muscle metabolic characteristics in patients with unilateral arterial disease. Jansson, E., Johansson, J., Sylvén, C., Kaijser, L. Clinical physiology (Oxford, England) (1988) [Pubmed]
  22. Citrate synthase expression and enzyme activity after endurance training in cardiac and skeletal muscles. Siu, P.M., Donley, D.A., Bryner, R.W., Alway, S.E. J. Appl. Physiol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  23. Skeletal muscle adaptation to endurance training in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Maltais, F., LeBlanc, P., Simard, C., Jobin, J., Bérubé, C., Bruneau, J., Carrier, L., Belleau, R. Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. (1996) [Pubmed]
  24. Oxidative enzyme activities of the vastus lateralis muscle and the functional status in patients with COPD. Maltais, F., LeBlanc, P., Whittom, F., Simard, C., Marquis, K., Bélanger, M., Breton, M.J., Jobin, J. Thorax (2000) [Pubmed]
  25. Citric-acid cycle key enzyme activities during in vitro growth and metacyclogenesis of Leishmania infantum promastigotes. Louassini, M., Foulquié, M., Benítez, R., Adroher, J. J. Parasitol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  26. Enzyme activity patterns of energy metabolism in skiers of different performance levels (M. quadriceps femoris). Macková, E.V., Bass, A., Sprynarová, S., Teisinger, J., Vondra, K., Bojanovský, I. European journal of applied physiology and occupational physiology. (1982) [Pubmed]
  27. Pathway-specific response to cortisol in the metabolism of catfish. Tripathi, G., Verma, P. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. B, Biochem. Mol. Biol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  28. Oxidative damage and metabolic dysfunction in Huntington's disease: selective vulnerability of the basal ganglia. Browne, S.E., Bowling, A.C., MacGarvey, U., Baik, M.J., Berger, S.C., Muqit, M.M., Bird, E.D., Beal, M.F. Ann. Neurol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  29. Wheat FKBP73 functions in vitro as a molecular chaperone independently of its peptidyl prolyl cis-trans isomerase activity. Kurek, I., Pirkl, F., Fischer, E., Buchner, J., Breiman, A. Planta (2002) [Pubmed]
  30. Characterization of lymphocyte fibronectin. Hauzenberger, D., Martin, N., Johansson, S., Sundqvist, K.G. Exp. Cell Res. (1996) [Pubmed]
  31. Mitochondrial import and processing of rat liver carnitine palmitoyltransferase II defines the amino terminus of the mature protein. Possibility of differential modification of the rat and human isoforms. Brown, N.F., Esser, V., Gonzalez, A.D., Evans, C.T., Slaughter, C.A., Foster, D.W., McGarry, J.D. J. Biol. Chem. (1991) [Pubmed]
  32. Myoglobin and enzyme adaptations in erector spinae muscles in thoracal scoliosis. Jansson, E., Sylvén, C., Bylund, P. Clinical physiology (Oxford, England) (1990) [Pubmed]
  33. Key enzymes of myocardial energy metabolism in papillary muscle of patients with mitral valve disease--relation to left ventricular function. Sylvén, C., Jansson, E., Szamosi, A., Böök, K. Scandinavian journal of thoracic and cardiovascular surgery. (1989) [Pubmed]
  34. Slow component of [V]O(2) kinetics: the effect of training status, fibre type, UCP3 mRNA and citrate synthase activity. Russell, A., Wadley, G., Snow, R., Giacobino, J.P., Muzzin, P., Garnham, A., Cameron-Smith, D. Int. J. Obes. Relat. Metab. Disord. (2002) [Pubmed]
  35. Increase in myoglobin content and decrease in oxidative enzyme activities by leg muscle immobilization in man. Jansson, E., Sylvén, C., Arvidsson, I., Eriksson, E. Acta Physiol. Scand. (1988) [Pubmed]
  36. Detection of citrate synthase-reacting autoantibodies after heart transplantation: an epitope mapping study. Petrohai, A., Nagy, G., Bosze, S., Hudecz, F., Zsiros, E., Paragh, G., Nyárády, Z., Németh, P., Berki, T. Transpl. Int. (2005) [Pubmed]
WikiGenes - Universities