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Chemical Compound Review

Chloroethylene     chloroethene

Synonyms: Armodour, Bakelite, Boltaron, Hostalit, Trovidur, ...
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Disease relevance of chloroethylene


High impact information on chloroethylene

  • Furthermore, the analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences recovered from PCE-dechlorinating consortia and chloroethene-contaminated subsurface environments suggests that Geobacter lovleyi belongs to a distinct, dechlorinating clade within the metal-reducing Geobacter group [7].
  • While many anaerobic microbial communities are capable of reductively dechlorinating tetrachloroethene (PCE) and trichloroethene (TCE) to dichloroethene (DCE), vinyl chloride (VC), and finally ethene, the accumulation of the highly toxic intermediates, cis-DCE (cDCE) and VC, presents a challenge for bioremediation processes [8].
  • We found that while gene expression correlated generally to the presence of chlorinated ethenes, there was no apparent direct relationship between RDase-encoding transcript numbers and respective rates of TCE, cDCE, and VC dechlorination activities [9].
  • These findings suggest that multiple RDH genes are induced by a single chlorinated substrate and that multiple reductive dehalogenases contribute to chloroethene degradation in KB1 [10].
  • Two tetrachlorethene (PCE)-dechlorinating populations, designated strains BB1 and BRS1, were isolated from pristine river sediment and chloroethene-contaminated aquifer material, respectively [11].

Chemical compound and disease context of chloroethylene


Biological context of chloroethylene

  • Growth studies and 16S rRNA gene-targeted analyses suggested culture purity; however, the careful quantitative analysis of Dehalococcoides 16S rRNA gene and chloroethene reductive dehalogenase gene (i.e., vcrA, tceA, and bvcA) copy numbers revealed that the culture consisted of multiple, distinct Dehalococcoides organisms [17].
  • Humic acids did not interfere significantly with chloroethene sorption or with TCE degradation but lowered PCE degradation kinetics by 36% when present at high concentrations (100 mg L(-1)) [18].
  • Evaluation of the genetic effects induced by vinyl chloride monomer (VCM) under mammalian metabolic activation: studies in vitro and in vivo [19].
  • Neither a deficiency in excision repair (rad3) nor in the error-prone repair pathway (rad6) increased the vinyl-chloride-induced conversion frequencies compared with the repair-competent D7RAD strain [20].
  • FINDINGS: Among 21 adult cases of vascular sarcomas there were 4 patients with occupational exposure to vinyl chloride (VC) either alone or together with other artificial polymers [21].

Anatomical context of chloroethylene


Associations of chloroethylene with other chemical compounds

  • A sediment column study was carried out to demonstrate the bioremediation of chloroethene- and nickel-contaminated sediment in a single anaerobic step under sulfate-reducing conditions [26].
  • We conducted an historical cohort study to investigate the mortality experience of industrial workers potentially exposed to chloroprene (CD) and other substances, including vinyl chloride (VC), with emphasis on cancer mortality, including respiratory system (RSC) and liver [27].
  • Degenerate and specific PCR primers were designed for the detection of chloroethene reductive dehalogenases (CE-RDase), the key enzymes of chloroethene dehalorespiration, based on sequence information of three CE-RDases and three chlorophenol (CP) RDases [28].
  • The IL-1 beta detection test proved further to be an important distinguishing parameter as it was 100% positive in patients with viral hepatitis but only 12.5% to 25% positive in patients with VC/TNT-induced liver damage [16].
  • Results from the field investigation suggest that intrinsic bioremediation process is occurring, which caused the decrease in TCE and CB concentrations, and increase in TCE degradation byproducts [e.g., dichloroethylene isomers (DCEs), vinyl chloride (VC)] concentrations [29].

Gene context of chloroethylene

  • In addition, primers designed to be specific for the three known CE-RDase genes, namely pceA of S. multivorans, pceA of D. restrictus, and tceA of Dehalococcoides ethenogenes were successfully tested on genomic DNA of different chloroethene-dehalorespiring bacteria [28].
  • Polymorphisms of DNA repair gene XPD and DNA damage of workers exposed to vinylchloride monomer [30].
  • Two new cases of ASL (in retired autoclave cleaners, who were exposed to a concentration of 500-1000 ppm vinyl chloride monomer (VCM) during the working process) in the same plant are represented [31].
  • Female Golden Syrian hamsters, F-344 rats, Swiss CD-1 mice, and B6C3F1 hybrid mice were exposed 6 hr/day, 5 days/week to carcinogenic levels of vinyl chloride (VC) for 6, 12, 18, or 24 months (rats and hamsters only) [24].
  • We studied sequence-specific interaction of the vinyl-chloride metabolite CAA with human p53 gene exons 5-8, using DNA Polymerase Fingerprint Analysis (DPFA), and identified sites of the highest sensitivity [32].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of chloroethylene

  • A study of pregnancy outcome among wives of workers exposed to vinyl-chloride monomer (V.C.M.) indicated that, in comparison with controls, there was a significant excess fetal loss in the group whose husbands had a primary exposure to V.C.M., whereas no differences between the groups were observed before the husband's exposures [33].
  • Total community DNA isolated from sediments of three Michigan rivers and six different chloroethene-contaminated aquifer samples was used as template in nested PCR [5].
  • Influence of vinyl chloride monomer (VCM) and As2O3 on rat liver cell proliferation after partial hepatectomy [34].
  • The fixation is based on pre-operatively constructed splints of the plastic material Resur Trovidur PE [35].
  • The room-temperature (RT) adsorption and thermal evolution of 1,1-dichloroethylene (1,1-C2H2Cl2 or iso-DCE) and monochloroethylene (C2H3Cl or MCE) on Si(111)7 x 7 have been studied by vibrational electron energy loss spectroscopy and thermal desorption spectrometry (TDS) [36].


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  2. Portal hypertension in vinyl-chloride production workers. Smith, P.M., Crossley, I.R., Williams, D.M. Lancet (1976) [Pubmed]
  3. Grey-scale ultrasonography for monitoring industrial exposure to hepatotoxic agents. Taylor, K.J., Williams, D.M., Smith, P.M., Duck, B.W. Lancet (1975) [Pubmed]
  4. p53 protein, EGF receptor, and anti-p53 antibodies in serum from patients with occupationally derived lung cancer. Schneider, J., Presek, P., Braun, A., Bauer, P., Konietzko, N., Wiesner, B., Woitowitz, H.J. Br. J. Cancer (1999) [Pubmed]
  5. 16S rRNA gene-based detection of tetrachloroethene-dechlorinating Desulfuromonas and Dehalococcoides species. Löffler, F.E., Sun, Q., Li, J., Tiedje, J.M. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  6. Vinyl chloride and the liver. Sherman, M. J. Hepatol. (2009) [Pubmed]
  7. Geobacter lovleyi sp. nov. strain SZ, a novel metal-reducing and tetrachloroethene-dechlorinating bacterium. Sung, Y., Fletcher, K.E., Ritalahti, K.M., Apkarian, R.P., Ramos-Hernández, N., Sanford, R.A., Mesbah, N.M., Löffler, F.E. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  8. Discrimination of multiple dehalococcoides strains in a trichloroethene enrichment by quantification of their reductive dehalogenase genes. Holmes, V.F., He, J., Lee, P.K., Alvarez-Cohen, L. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  9. Reductive Dehalogenase Gene Expression as a Biomarker for Physiological Activity of Dehalococcoides spp. Lee, P.K., Johnson, D.R., Holmes, V.F., He, J., Alvarez-Cohen, L. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  10. Multiple reductive-dehalogenase-homologous genes are simultaneously transcribed during dechlorination by Dehalococcoides-containing cultures. Waller, A.S., Krajmalnik-Brown, R., Löffler, F.E., Edwards, E.A. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  11. Characterization of two tetrachloroethene-reducing, acetate-oxidizing anaerobic bacteria and their description as Desulfuromonas michiganensis sp. nov. Sung, Y., Ritalahti, K.M., Sanford, R.A., Urbance, J.W., Flynn, S.J., Tiedje, J.M., Löffler, F.E. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  12. Selection of trichloroethene (TCE) degrading bacteria that resist inactivation by TCE. Ewers, J., Freier-Schröder, D., Knackmuss, H.J. Arch. Microbiol. (1990) [Pubmed]
  13. Biodegradation of vinyl chloride and cis-dichloroethene by a Ralstonia sp. strain TRW-1. Elango, V.K., Liggenstoffer, A.S., Fathepure, B.Z. Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  14. Bioaugmentation potential of a vinyl chloride-assimilating Mycobacterium sp., isolated from a chloroethene-contaminated aquifer. Fathepure, B.Z., Elango, V.K., Singh, H., Bruner, M.A. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. (2005) [Pubmed]
  15. Mortality patterns among industrial workers exposed to chloroprene and other substances II. Mortality in relation to exposure. Marsh, G.M., Youk, A.O., Buchanich, J.M., Cunningham, M., Esmen, N.A., Hall, T.A., Phillips, M.L. Chem. Biol. Interact. (2007) [Pubmed]
  16. Cholylglycine measured in serum by RIA and interleukin-1 beta determined by ELISA in differentiating viral hepatitis from chemical liver injury. Li, G.Y., Wang, T., Huggins, E.M., Shams, N.K., Davis, J.F., Calkins, J.H., Hornung, C.A., Altekruse, J.M., Sigel, M.M. Journal of occupational medicine. : official publication of the Industrial Medical Association. (1992) [Pubmed]
  17. Quantitative PCR confirms purity of strain GT, a novel trichloroethene-to-ethene-respiring Dehalococcoides isolate. Sung, Y., Ritalahti, K.M., Apkarian, R.P., Löffler, F.E. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  18. Competition for sorption and degradation of chlorinated ethenes in batch zero-valent iron systems. Dries, J., Bastiaens, L., Springael, D., Agathos, S.N., Diels, L. Environ. Sci. Technol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  19. Evaluation of the genetic effects induced by vinyl chloride monomer (VCM) under mammalian metabolic activation: studies in vitro and in vivo. Loprieno, N., Barale, R., Baroncelli, S., Bauer, C., Bronzetti, G., Cammellini, A., Cercignani, G., Corsi, C., Gervasi, G., Leporini, C., Nieri, R., Rossi, A.M., Stretti, G., Turchi, G. Mutat. Res. (1976) [Pubmed]
  20. Rat hepatic vinyl chloride metabolites induce gene conversion in the yeast strain D7RAD in vitro and in vivo. Eckardt, F., Muliawan, H., de Ruiter, N., Kappus, H. Mutat. Res. (1981) [Pubmed]
  21. Exposure to polymeric materials in vascular soft-tissue sarcomas. Rhomberg, W. International archives of occupational and environmental health. (1998) [Pubmed]
  22. Simultaneous quantitation of N(2),3-ethenoguanine and 1,N(2)-ethenoguanine with an immunoaffinity/gas chromatography/high-resolution mass spectrometry assay. Morinello, E.J., Ham, A.J., Ranasinghe, A., Sangaiah, R., Swenberg, J.A. Chem. Res. Toxicol. (2001) [Pubmed]
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  24. The effect of age and exposure duration on cancer induction by a known carcinogen in rats, mice, and hamsters. Drew, R.T., Boorman, G.A., Haseman, J.K., McConnell, E.E., Busey, W.M., Moore, J.A. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. (1983) [Pubmed]
  25. Invasive character of malignant endothelial cells in vinyl-chloride-induced liver angiosarcoma. Hayashi, H., Sakamoto, N., Aoi, T., Fukumura, A., Mano, H., Inagaki, T. Nagoya journal of medical science. (1990) [Pubmed]
  26. Dehalogenation of chlorinated ethenes and immobilization of nickel in anaerobic sediment columns under sulfidogenic conditions. Drzyzga, O., El Mamouni, R., Agathos, S.N., Gottschal, J.C. Environ. Sci. Technol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  27. Mortality patterns among industrial workers exposed to chloroprene and other substances I. General mortality patterns. Marsh, G.M., Youk, A.O., Buchanich, J.M., Cunningham, M., Esmen, N.A., Hall, T.A., Phillips, M.L. Chem. Biol. Interact. (2007) [Pubmed]
  28. Development of degenerate and specific PCR primers for the detection and isolation of known and putative chloroethene reductive dehalogenase genes. Regeard, C., Maillard, J., Holliger, C. J. Microbiol. Methods (2004) [Pubmed]
  29. Intrinsic bioremediation of trichloroethylene and chlorobenzene: field and laboratory studies. Kao, C.M., Prosser, J. Journal of hazardous materials. (1999) [Pubmed]
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  31. Two new cases of liver angiosarcoma: history and perspectives of liver angiosarcoma among plastic industry workers. Hozo, I., Andelinović, S., Ljutić, D., Bojić, L., Mirić, D., Giunio, L. Toxicology and industrial health. (1997) [Pubmed]
  32. Sequence-specific p53 gene damage by chloroacetaldehyde and its repair kinetics in Escherichia coli. Kowalczyk, P., Cieśla, J.M., Saparbaev, M., Laval, J., Tudek, B. Acta Biochim. Pol. (2006) [Pubmed]
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  34. Influence of vinyl chloride monomer (VCM) and As2O3 on rat liver cell proliferation after partial hepatectomy. Norpoth, K., Gottschalk, D., Gottschalk, I., Witting, U., Thomas, H., Eichner, D., Schmidt, E.H. J. Cancer Res. Clin. Oncol. (1980) [Pubmed]
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